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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Do Better ImageNet Models Transfer Better... for Image Recommendation?

Sep 25, 2018
Felipe del Rio, Pablo Messina, Vicente Dominguez, Denis Parra

Visual embeddings from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) trained on the ImageNet dataset for the ILSVRC challenge have shown consistently good performance for transfer learning and are widely used in several tasks, including image recommendation. However, some important questions have not yet been answered in order to use these embeddings for a larger scope of recommendation domains: a) Do CNNs that perform better in ImageNet are also better for transfer learning in content-based image recommendation?, b) Does fine-tuning help to improve performance? and c) Which is the best way to perform the fine-tuning? In this paper we compare several CNN models pre-trained with ImageNet to evaluate their transfer learning performance to an artwork image recommendation task. Our results indicate that models with better performance in the ImageNet challenge do not always imply better transfer learning for recommendation tasks (e.g. NASNet vs. ResNet). Our results also show that fine-tuning can be helpful even with a small dataset, but not every fine-tuning works. Our results can inform other researchers and practitioners on how to train their CNNs for better transfer learning towards image recommendation systems.

* Submitted to KTL Workshop co-located at RecSys 

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Freudian and Newtonian Recurrent Cell for Sequential Recommendation

Feb 11, 2021
Hoyeop Lee, Jinbae Im, Chang Ouk Kim, Sehee Chung

A sequential recommender system aims to recommend attractive items to users based on behaviour patterns. The predominant sequential recommendation models are based on natural language processing models, such as the gated recurrent unit, that embed items in some defined space and grasp the user's long-term and short-term preferences based on the item embeddings. However, these approaches lack fundamental insight into how such models are related to the user's inherent decision-making process. To provide this insight, we propose a novel recurrent cell, namely FaNC, from Freudian and Newtonian perspectives. FaNC divides the user's state into conscious and unconscious states, and the user's decision process is modelled by Freud's two principles: the pleasure principle and reality principle. To model the pleasure principle, i.e., free-floating user's instinct, we place the user's unconscious state and item embeddings in the same latent space and subject them to Newton's law of gravitation. Moreover, to recommend items to users, we model the reality principle, i.e., balancing the conscious and unconscious states, via a gating function. Based on extensive experiments on various benchmark datasets, this paper provides insight into the characteristics of the proposed model. FaNC initiates a new direction of sequential recommendations at the convergence of psychoanalysis and recommender systems.


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Reinforcement learning based recommender systems: A survey

Jan 15, 2021
M. Mehdi Afsar, Trafford Crump, Behrouz Far

Recommender systems (RSs) are becoming an inseparable part of our everyday lives. They help us find our favorite items to purchase, our friends on social networks, and our favorite movies to watch. Traditionally, the recommendation problem was considered as a simple classification or prediction problem; however, the sequential nature of the recommendation problem has been shown. Accordingly, it can be formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP) and reinforcement learning (RL) methods can be employed to solve it. In fact, recent advances in combining deep learning with traditional RL methods, i.e. deep reinforcement learning (DRL), has made it possible to apply RL to the recommendation problem with massive state and action spaces. In this paper, a survey on reinforcement learning based recommender systems (RLRSs) is presented. We first recognize the fact that algorithms developed for RLRSs can be generally classified into RL- and DRL-based methods. Then, we present these RL- and DRL-based methods in a classified manner based on the specific RL algorithm, e.g., Q-learning, SARSA, and REINFORCE, that is used to optimize the recommendation policy. Furthermore, some tables are presented that contain detailed information about the MDP formulation of these methods, as well as about their evaluation schemes. Finally, we discuss important aspects and challenges that can be addressed in the future.

* Submitted to ACM Computing Surveys 

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Recommendation or Discrimination?: Quantifying Distribution Parity in Information Retrieval Systems

Sep 13, 2019
Rinat Khaziev, Bryce Casavant, Pearce Washabaugh, Amy A. Winecoff, Matthew Graham

Information retrieval (IR) systems often leverage query data to suggest relevant items to users. This introduces the possibility of unfairness if the query (i.e., input) and the resulting recommendations unintentionally correlate with latent factors that are protected variables (e.g., race, gender, and age). For instance, a visual search system for fashion recommendations may pick up on features of the human models rather than fashion garments when generating recommendations. In this work, we introduce a statistical test for "distribution parity" in the top-K IR results, which assesses whether a given set of recommendations is fair with respect to a specific protected variable. We evaluate our test using both simulated and empirical results. First, using artificially biased recommendations, we demonstrate the trade-off between statistically detectable bias and the size of the search catalog. Second, we apply our test to a visual search system for fashion garments, specifically testing for recommendation bias based on the skin tone of fashion models. Our distribution parity test can help ensure that IR systems' results are fair and produce a good experience for all users.


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Mining Latent Structures for Multimedia Recommendation

Apr 19, 2021
Jinghao Zhang, Yanqiao Zhu, Qiang Liu, Shu Wu, Shuhui Wang, Liang Wang

Multimedia content is of predominance in the modern Web era. Investigating how users interact with multimodal items is a continuing concern within the rapid development of recommender systems. The majority of previous work focuses on modeling user-item interactions with multimodal features included as side information. However, this scheme is not well-designed for multimedia recommendation. Specifically, only collaborative item-item relationships are implicitly modeled through high-order item-user-item relations. Considering that items are associated with rich contents in multiple modalities, we argue that the latent item-item structures underlying these multimodal contents could be beneficial for learning better item representations and further boosting recommendation. To this end, we propose a LATent sTructure mining method for multImodal reCommEndation, which we term LATTICE for brevity. To be specific, in the proposed LATTICE model, we devise a novel modality-aware structure learning layer, which learns item-item structures for each modality and aggregates multiple modalities to obtain latent item graphs. Based on the learned latent graphs, we perform graph convolutions to explicitly inject high-order item affinities into item representations. These enriched item representations can then be plugged into existing collaborative filtering methods to make more accurate recommendations. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method over state-of-the-art multimedia recommendation methods and validate the efficacy of mining latent item-item relationships from multimodal features.

* Work in progress, 10 pages 

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Self-supervised Graph Learning for Recommendation

Oct 21, 2020
Jiancan Wu, Xiang Wang, Fuli Feng, Xiangnan He, Liang Chen, Jianxun Lian, Xing Xie

Representation learning on user-item graph for recommendation has evolved from using single ID or interaction history to exploiting higher-order neighbors. This leads to the success of graph convolution networks (GCNs) for recommendation such as PinSage and LightGCN. Despite effectiveness, we argue that they suffer from two limitations: (1) high-degree nodes exert larger impact on the representation learning, deteriorating the recommendations of low-degree (long-tail) items; and (2) representations are vulnerable to noisy interactions, as the neighborhood aggregation scheme further enlarges the impact of observed edges. In this work, we explore self-supervised learning on user-item graph, so as to improve the accuracy and robustness of GCNs for recommendation. The idea is to supplement the classical supervised task of recommendation with an auxiliary self-supervised task, which reinforces node representation learning via self-discrimination. Specifically, we generate multiple views of a node, maximizing the agreement between different views of the same node compared to that of other nodes. We devise four operators to generate the views -- embedding masking, embedding dropout, node dropout, and edge dropout -- that augment node representation from two perspectives of ID embedding and graph structure. We term this new learning paradigm as \textit{Self-supervised Graph Learning} (SGL), implementing it on the state-of-the-art model LightGCN. Empirical studies on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of SGL, which improves the recommendation accuracy, especially on long-tail items, and the robustness against interaction noises.

* 11 pages, 7 pages, 5 tables 

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Hybrid Q-Learning Applied to Ubiquitous recommender system

Mar 30, 2014
Djallel Bouneffouf

Ubiquitous information access becomes more and more important nowadays and research is aimed at making it adapted to users. Our work consists in applying machine learning techniques in order to bring a solution to some of the problems concerning the acceptance of the system by users. To achieve this, we propose a fundamental shift in terms of how we model the learning of recommender system: inspired by models of human reasoning developed in robotic, we combine reinforcement learning and case-base reasoning to define a recommendation process that uses these two approaches for generating recommendations on different context dimensions (social, temporal, geographic). We describe an implementation of the recommender system based on this framework. We also present preliminary results from experiments with the system and show how our approach increases the recommendation quality.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1301.4351, arXiv:1303.2308 

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Exploiting Data Sparsity in Secure Cross-Platform Social Recommendation

Feb 15, 2022
Jamie Cui, Chaochao Chen, Lingjuan Lyu, Carl Yang, Li Wang

Social recommendation has shown promising improvements over traditional systems since it leverages social correlation data as an additional input. Most existing work assumes that all data are available to the recommendation platform. However, in practice, user-item interaction data (e.g.,rating) and user-user social data are usually generated by different platforms, and both of which contain sensitive information. Therefore, "How to perform secure and efficient social recommendation across different platforms, where the data are highly-sparse in nature" remains an important challenge. In this work, we bring secure computation techniques into social recommendation, and propose S3Rec, a sparsity-aware secure cross-platform social recommendation framework. As a result, our model can not only improve the recommendation performance of the rating platform by incorporating the sparse social data on the social platform, but also protect data privacy of both platforms. Moreover, to further improve model training efficiency, we propose two secure sparse matrix multiplication protocols based on homomorphic encryption and private information retrieval. Our experiments on two benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of S3Rec.


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PURS: Personalized Unexpected Recommender System for Improving User Satisfaction

Jun 05, 2021
Pan Li, Maofei Que, Zhichao Jiang, Yao Hu, Alexander Tuzhilin

Classical recommender system methods typically face the filter bubble problem when users only receive recommendations of their familiar items, making them bored and dissatisfied. To address the filter bubble problem, unexpected recommendations have been proposed to recommend items significantly deviating from user's prior expectations and thus surprising them by presenting "fresh" and previously unexplored items to the users. In this paper, we describe a novel Personalized Unexpected Recommender System (PURS) model that incorporates unexpectedness into the recommendation process by providing multi-cluster modeling of user interests in the latent space and personalized unexpectedness via the self-attention mechanism and via selection of an appropriate unexpected activation function. Extensive offline experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate that the proposed PURS model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline approaches in terms of both accuracy and unexpectedness measures. In addition, we conduct an online A/B test at a major video platform Alibaba-Youku, where our model achieves over 3\% increase in the average video view per user metric. The proposed model is in the process of being deployed by the company.

* Accepted to RecSys20 

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URIR: Recommendation algorithm of user RNN encoder and item encoder based on knowledge graph

Nov 01, 2021
Na zhao, Zhen Long, Zhi-Dan Zhao, Jian Wang

Due to a large amount of information, it is difficult for users to find what they are interested in among the many choices. In order to improve users' experience, recommendation systems have been widely used in music recommendations, movie recommendations, online shopping, and other scenarios. Recently, Knowledge Graph (KG) has been proven to be an effective tool to improve the performance of recommendation systems. However, a huge challenge in applying knowledge graphs for recommendation is how to use knowledge graphs to obtain better user codes and item codes. In response to this problem, this research proposes a user Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) encoder and item encoder recommendation algorithm based on Knowledge Graph (URIR). This study encodes items by capturing high-level neighbor information to generate items' representation vectors and applies an RNN and items' representation vectors to encode users to generate users' representation vectors, and then perform inner product operation on users' representation vectors and items' representation vectors to get probabilities of users interaction with items. Numerical experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate that URIR is superior performance to state-of-the-art algorithms in indicators such as AUC, Precision, Recall, and MRR. This implies that URIR can effectively use knowledge graph to obtain better user codes and item codes, thereby obtaining better recommendation results.


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