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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Posture Prediction for Healthy Sitting using a Smart Chair

Jan 05, 2022
Tariku Adane Gelaw, Misgina Tsighe Hagos

Poor sitting habits have been identified as a risk factor to musculoskeletal disorders and lower back pain especially on the elderly, disabled people, and office workers. In the current computerized world, even while involved in leisure or work activity, people tend to spend most of their days sitting at computer desks. This can result in spinal pain and related problems. Therefore, a means to remind people about their sitting habits and provide recommendations to counterbalance, such as physical exercise, is important. Posture recognition for seated postures have not received enough attention as most works focus on standing postures. Wearable sensors, pressure or force sensors, videos and images were used for posture recognition in the literature. The aim of this study is to build Machine Learning models for classifying sitting posture of a person by analyzing data collected from a chair platted with two 32 by 32 pressure sensors at its seat and backrest. Models were built using five algorithms: Random Forest (RF), Gaussian Na\"ive Bayes, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine and Deep Neural Network (DNN). All the models are evaluated using KFold cross-validation technique. This paper presents experiments conducted using the two separate datasets, controlled and realistic, and discusses results achieved at classifying six sitting postures. Average classification accuracies of 98% and 97% were achieved on the controlled and realistic datasets, respectively.

* International Conference on Advances of Science and Technology 2021, LNICST 411, pp 401-411 

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Transfer-based adaptive tree for multimodal sentiment analysis based on user latent aspects

Jun 27, 2021
Sana Rahmani, Saeid Hosseini, Raziyeh Zall, Mohammad Reza Kangavari, Sara Kamran, Wen Hua

Multimodal sentiment analysis benefits various applications such as human-computer interaction and recommendation systems. It aims to infer the users' bipolar ideas using visual, textual, and acoustic signals. Although researchers affirm the association between cognitive cues and emotional manifestations, most of the current multimodal approaches in sentiment analysis disregard user-specific aspects. To tackle this issue, we devise a novel method to perform multimodal sentiment prediction using cognitive cues, such as personality. Our framework constructs an adaptive tree by hierarchically dividing users and trains the LSTM-based submodels, utilizing an attention-based fusion to transfer cognitive-oriented knowledge within the tree. Subsequently, the framework consumes the conclusive agglomerative knowledge from the adaptive tree to predict final sentiments. We also devise a dynamic dropout method to facilitate data sharing between neighboring nodes, reducing data sparsity. The empirical results on real-world datasets determine that our proposed model for sentiment prediction can surpass trending rivals. Moreover, compared to other ensemble approaches, the proposed transfer-based algorithm can better utilize the latent cognitive cues and foster the prediction outcomes. Based on the given extrinsic and intrinsic analysis results, we note that compared to other theoretical-based techniques, the proposed hierarchical clustering approach can better group the users within the adaptive tree.

* Under Review on IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 

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To Trust or to Think: Cognitive Forcing Functions Can Reduce Overreliance on AI in AI-assisted Decision-making

Feb 19, 2021
Zana Buçinca, Maja Barbara Malaya, Krzysztof Z. Gajos

People supported by AI-powered decision support tools frequently overrely on the AI: they accept an AI's suggestion even when that suggestion is wrong. Adding explanations to the AI decisions does not appear to reduce the overreliance and some studies suggest that it might even increase it. Informed by the dual-process theory of cognition, we posit that people rarely engage analytically with each individual AI recommendation and explanation, and instead develop general heuristics about whether and when to follow the AI suggestions. Building on prior research on medical decision-making, we designed three cognitive forcing interventions to compel people to engage more thoughtfully with the AI-generated explanations. We conducted an experiment (N=199), in which we compared our three cognitive forcing designs to two simple explainable AI approaches and to a no-AI baseline. The results demonstrate that cognitive forcing significantly reduced overreliance compared to the simple explainable AI approaches. However, there was a trade-off: people assigned the least favorable subjective ratings to the designs that reduced the overreliance the most. To audit our work for intervention-generated inequalities, we investigated whether our interventions benefited equally people with different levels of Need for Cognition (i.e., motivation to engage in effortful mental activities). Our results show that, on average, cognitive forcing interventions benefited participants higher in Need for Cognition more. Our research suggests that human cognitive motivation moderates the effectiveness of explainable AI solutions.

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Learning to Collaborate: Multi-Scenario Ranking via Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning

Sep 17, 2018
Jun Feng, Heng Li, Minlie Huang, Shichen Liu, Wenwu Ou, Zhirong Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu

Ranking is a fundamental and widely studied problem in scenarios such as search, advertising, and recommendation. However, joint optimization for multi-scenario ranking, which aims to improve the overall performance of several ranking strategies in different scenarios, is rather untouched. Separately optimizing each individual strategy has two limitations. The first one is lack of collaboration between scenarios meaning that each strategy maximizes its own objective but ignores the goals of other strategies, leading to a sub-optimal overall performance. The second limitation is the inability of modeling the correlation between scenarios meaning that independent optimization in one scenario only uses its own user data but ignores the context in other scenarios. In this paper, we formulate multi-scenario ranking as a fully cooperative, partially observable, multi-agent sequential decision problem. We propose a novel model named Multi-Agent Recurrent Deterministic Policy Gradient (MA-RDPG) which has a communication component for passing messages, several private actors (agents) for making actions for ranking, and a centralized critic for evaluating the overall performance of the co-working actors. Each scenario is treated as an agent (actor). Agents collaborate with each other by sharing a global action-value function (the critic) and passing messages that encodes historical information across scenarios. The model is evaluated with online settings on a large E-commerce platform. Results show that the proposed model exhibits significant improvements against baselines in terms of the overall performance.

* WWW2018 

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Making Contextual Decisions with Low Technical Debt

May 09, 2017
Alekh Agarwal, Sarah Bird, Markus Cozowicz, Luong Hoang, John Langford, Stephen Lee, Jiaji Li, Dan Melamed, Gal Oshri, Oswaldo Ribas, Siddhartha Sen, Alex Slivkins

Applications and systems are constantly faced with decisions that require picking from a set of actions based on contextual information. Reinforcement-based learning algorithms such as contextual bandits can be very effective in these settings, but applying them in practice is fraught with technical debt, and no general system exists that supports them completely. We address this and create the first general system for contextual learning, called the Decision Service. Existing systems often suffer from technical debt that arises from issues like incorrect data collection and weak debuggability, issues we systematically address through our ML methodology and system abstractions. The Decision Service enables all aspects of contextual bandit learning using four system abstractions which connect together in a loop: explore (the decision space), log, learn, and deploy. Notably, our new explore and log abstractions ensure the system produces correct, unbiased data, which our learner uses for online learning and to enable real-time safeguards, all in a fully reproducible manner. The Decision Service has a simple user interface and works with a variety of applications: we present two live production deployments for content recommendation that achieved click-through improvements of 25-30%, another with 18% revenue lift in the landing page, and ongoing applications in tech support and machine failure handling. The service makes real-time decisions and learns continuously and scalably, while significantly lowering technical debt.

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On the Complexity of Inner Product Similarity Join

Apr 07, 2016
Thomas D. Ahle, Rasmus Pagh, Ilya Razenshteyn, Francesco Silvestri

A number of tasks in classification, information retrieval, recommendation systems, and record linkage reduce to the core problem of inner product similarity join (IPS join): identifying pairs of vectors in a collection that have a sufficiently large inner product. IPS join is well understood when vectors are normalized and some approximation of inner products is allowed. However, the general case where vectors may have any length appears much more challenging. Recently, new upper bounds based on asymmetric locality-sensitive hashing (ALSH) and asymmetric embeddings have emerged, but little has been known on the lower bound side. In this paper we initiate a systematic study of inner product similarity join, showing new lower and upper bounds. Our main results are: * Approximation hardness of IPS join in subquadratic time, assuming the strong exponential time hypothesis. * New upper and lower bounds for (A)LSH-based algorithms. In particular, we show that asymmetry can be avoided by relaxing the LSH definition to only consider the collision probability of distinct elements. * A new indexing method for IPS based on linear sketches, implying that our hardness results are not far from being tight. Our technical contributions include new asymmetric embeddings that may be of independent interest. At the conceptual level we strive to provide greater clarity, for example by distinguishing among signed and unsigned variants of IPS join and shedding new light on the effect of asymmetry.

* in Proc. 35th ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, 2016 

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Multi-Agent Advisor Q-Learning

Nov 08, 2021
Sriram Ganapathi Subramanian, Matthew E. Taylor, Kate Larson, Mark Crowley

In the last decade, there have been significant advances in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) but there are still numerous challenges, such as high sample complexity and slow convergence to stable policies, that need to be overcome before wide-spread deployment is possible. However, many real-world environments already, in practice, deploy sub-optimal or heuristic approaches for generating policies. An interesting question which arises is how to best use such approaches as advisors to help improve reinforcement learning in multi-agent domains. In this paper, we provide a principled framework for incorporating action recommendations from online sub-optimal advisors in multi-agent settings. We describe the problem of ADvising Multiple Intelligent Reinforcement Agents (ADMIRAL) in nonrestrictive general-sum stochastic game environments and present two novel Q-learning based algorithms: ADMIRAL - Decision Making (ADMIRAL-DM) and ADMIRAL - Advisor Evaluation (ADMIRAL-AE), which allow us to improve learning by appropriately incorporating advice from an advisor (ADMIRAL-DM), and evaluate the effectiveness of an advisor (ADMIRAL-AE). We analyze the algorithms theoretically and provide fixed-point guarantees regarding their learning in general-sum stochastic games. Furthermore, extensive experiments illustrate that these algorithms: can be used in a variety of environments, have performances that compare favourably to other related baselines, can scale to large state-action spaces, and are robust to poor advice from advisors.

* New version has some typos corrected 

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Obsolete Personal Information Update System for the Prevention of Falls among Elderly Patients

Jan 20, 2021
Salma Chaieb, Brahim Hnich, Ali Ben Mrad

Falls are a common problem affecting the older adults and a major public health issue. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization report that one in three adults over the age of 65 and half of the adults over 80 fall each year. In recent years, an ever-increasing range of applications have been developed to help deliver more effective falls prevention interventions. All these applications rely on a huge elderly personal database collected from hospitals, mutual health, and other organizations in caring for elderly. The information describing an elderly is continually evolving and may become obsolete at a given moment and contradict what we already know on the same person. So, it needs to be continuously checked and updated in order to restore the database consistency and then provide better service. This paper provides an outline of an Obsolete personal Information Update System (OIUS) designed in the context of the elderly-fall prevention project. Our OIUS aims to control and update in real-time the information acquired about each older adult, provide on-demand consistent information and supply tailored interventions to caregivers and fall-risk patients. The approach outlined for this purpose is based on a polynomial-time algorithm build on top of a causal Bayesian network representing the elderly data. The result is given as a recommendation tree with some accuracy level. We conduct a thorough empirical study for such a model on an elderly personal information base. Experiments confirm the viability and effectiveness of our OIUS.

* The article is submitted for review to the journal "Decision Support Systems" on January 19, 2021 

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Multi-future Merchant Transaction Prediction

Jul 10, 2020
Chin-Chia Michael Yeh, Zhongfang Zhuang, Wei Zhang, Liang Wang

The multivariate time series generated from merchant transaction history can provide critical insights for payment processing companies. The capability of predicting merchants' future is crucial for fraud detection and recommendation systems. Conventionally, this problem is formulated to predict one multivariate time series under the multi-horizon setting. However, real-world applications often require more than one future trend prediction considering the uncertainties, where more than one multivariate time series needs to be predicted. This problem is called multi-future prediction. In this work, we combine the two research directions and propose to study this new problem: multi-future, multi-horizon and multivariate time series prediction. This problem is crucial as it has broad use cases in the financial industry to reduce the risk while improving user experience by providing alternative futures. This problem is also challenging as now we not only need to capture the patterns and insights from the past but also train a model that has a strong inference capability to project multiple possible outcomes. To solve this problem, we propose a new model using convolutional neural networks and a simple yet effective encoder-decoder structure to learn the time series pattern from multiple perspectives. We use experiments on real-world merchant transaction data to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model. We also provide extensive discussions on different model design choices in our experimental section.

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