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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis of Scientific Reviews

Jun 05, 2020
Souvic Chakraborty, Pawan Goyal, Animesh Mukherjee

Scientific papers are complex and understanding the usefulness of these papers requires prior knowledge. Peer reviews are comments on a paper provided by designated experts on that field and hold a substantial amount of information, not only for the editors and chairs to make the final decision, but also to judge the potential impact of the paper. In this paper, we propose to use aspect-based sentiment analysis of scientific reviews to be able to extract useful information, which correlates well with the accept/reject decision. While working on a dataset of close to 8k reviews from ICLR, one of the top conferences in the field of machine learning, we use an active learning framework to build a training dataset for aspect prediction, which is further used to obtain the aspects and sentiments for the entire dataset. We show that the distribution of aspect-based sentiments obtained from a review is significantly different for accepted and rejected papers. We use the aspect sentiments from these reviews to make an intriguing observation, certain aspects present in a paper and discussed in the review strongly determine the final recommendation. As a second objective, we quantify the extent of disagreement among the reviewers refereeing a paper. We also investigate the extent of disagreement between the reviewers and the chair and find that the inter-reviewer disagreement may have a link to the disagreement with the chair. One of the most interesting observations from this study is that reviews, where the reviewer score and the aspect sentiments extracted from the review text written by the reviewer are consistent, are also more likely to be concurrent with the chair's decision.

* Accepted in JCDL'20 

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Sequential Batch Learning in Finite-Action Linear Contextual Bandits

Apr 14, 2020
Yanjun Han, Zhengqing Zhou, Zhengyuan Zhou, Jose Blanchet, Peter W. Glynn, Yinyu Ye

We study the sequential batch learning problem in linear contextual bandits with finite action sets, where the decision maker is constrained to split incoming individuals into (at most) a fixed number of batches and can only observe outcomes for the individuals within a batch at the batch's end. Compared to both standard online contextual bandits learning or offline policy learning in contexutal bandits, this sequential batch learning problem provides a finer-grained formulation of many personalized sequential decision making problems in practical applications, including medical treatment in clinical trials, product recommendation in e-commerce and adaptive experiment design in crowdsourcing. We study two settings of the problem: one where the contexts are arbitrarily generated and the other where the contexts are \textit{iid} drawn from some distribution. In each setting, we establish a regret lower bound and provide an algorithm, whose regret upper bound nearly matches the lower bound. As an important insight revealed therefrom, in the former setting, we show that the number of batches required to achieve the fully online performance is polynomial in the time horizon, while for the latter setting, a pure-exploitation algorithm with a judicious batch partition scheme achieves the fully online performance even when the number of batches is less than logarithmic in the time horizon. Together, our results provide a near-complete characterization of sequential decision making in linear contextual bandits when batch constraints are present.


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Theme-Matters: Fashion Compatibility Learning via Theme Attention

Dec 26, 2019
Jui-Hsin Lai, Bo Wu, Xin Wang, Dan Zeng, Tao Mei, Jingen Liu

Fashion compatibility learning is important to many fashion markets such as outfit composition and online fashion recommendation. Unlike previous work, we argue that fashion compatibility is not only a visual appearance compatible problem but also a theme-matters problem. An outfit, which consists of a set of fashion items (e.g., shirt, suit, shoes, etc.), is considered to be compatible for a "dating" event, yet maybe not for a "business" occasion. In this paper, we aim at solving the fashion compatibility problem given specific themes. To this end, we built the first real-world theme-aware fashion dataset comprising 14K around outfits labeled with 32 themes. In this dataset, there are more than 40K fashion items labeled with 152 fine-grained categories. We also propose an attention model learning fashion compatibility given a specific theme. It starts with a category-specific subspace learning, which projects compatible outfit items in certain categories to be close in the subspace. Thanks to strong connections between fashion themes and categories, we then build a theme-attention model over the category-specific embedding space. This model associates themes with the pairwise compatibility with attention, and thus compute the outfit-wise compatibility. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to estimate outfit compatibility conditional on a theme. We conduct extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments on our new dataset. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches.


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Interactive Attention for Semantic Text Matching

Nov 11, 2019
Sendong Zhao, Yong Huang, Chang Su, Yuantong Li, Fei Wang

Semantic text matching, which matches a target text to a source text, is a general problem in many domains like information retrieval, question answering, and recommendation. There are several challenges for this problem, such as semantic gaps between words, implicit matching, and mismatch due to out-of-vocabulary or low-frequency words, etc. Most existing studies made great efforts to overcome these challenges by learning good representations for different text pieces or operating on global matching signals to get the matching score. However, they did not learn the local fine-grained interactive information for a specific source and target pair. In this paper, we propose a novel interactive attention model for semantic text matching, which learns new representations for source and target texts through interactive attention via global matching matrix and updates local fine-grained relevance between source and target. Our model could enrich the representations of source and target objects by adopting global relevance and learned local fine-grained relevance. The enriched representations of source and target encode global relevance and local relevance of each other, therefore, could empower the semantic match of texts. We conduct empirical evaluations of our model with three applications including biomedical literature retrieval, tweet and news linking, and factoid question answering. Experimental results on three data sets demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms competitive baseline methods.


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Binary Matrix Completion Using Unobserved Entries

Mar 13, 2018
Masayoshi Hayashi, Tomoya Sakai, Masashi Sugiyama

A matrix completion problem, which aims to recover a complete matrix from its partial observations, is one of the important problems in the machine learning field and has been studied actively. However, there is a discrepancy between the mainstream problem setting, which assumes continuous-valued observations, and some practical applications such as recommendation systems and SNS link predictions where observations take discrete or even binary values. To cope with this problem, Davenport et al. (2014) proposed a binary matrix completion (BMC) problem, where observations are quantized into binary values. Hsieh et al. (2015) proposed a PU (Positive and Unlabeled) matrix completion problem, which is an extension of the BMC problem. This problem targets the setting where we cannot observe negative values, such as SNS link predictions. In the construction of their method for this setting, they introduced a methodology of the classification problem, regarding each matrix entry as a sample. Their risk, which defines losses over unobserved entries as well, indicates the possibility of the use of unobserved entries. In this paper, motivated by a semi-supervised classification method recently proposed by Sakai et al. (2017), we develop a method for the BMC problem which can use all of positive, negative, and unobserved entries, by combining the risks of Davenport et al. (2014) and Hsieh et al. (2015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first BMC method which exploits all kinds of matrix entries. We experimentally show that an appropriate mixture of risks improves the performance.


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Real-time analysis of cataract surgery videos using statistical models

Oct 18, 2016
Katia Charrière, Gwenolé Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, David Martiano, Guy Cazuguel, Gouenou Coatrieux, Béatrice Cochener

The automatic analysis of the surgical process, from videos recorded during surgeries, could be very useful to surgeons, both for training and for acquiring new techniques. The training process could be optimized by automatically providing some targeted recommendations or warnings, similar to the expert surgeon's guidance. In this paper, we propose to reuse videos recorded and stored during cataract surgeries to perform the analysis. The proposed system allows to automatically recognize, in real time, what the surgeon is doing: what surgical phase or, more precisely, what surgical step he or she is performing. This recognition relies on the inference of a multilevel statistical model which uses 1) the conditional relations between levels of description (steps and phases) and 2) the temporal relations among steps and among phases. The model accepts two types of inputs: 1) the presence of surgical tools, manually provided by the surgeons, or 2) motion in videos, automatically analyzed through the Content Based Video retrieval (CBVR) paradigm. Different data-driven statistical models are evaluated in this paper. For this project, a dataset of 30 cataract surgery videos was collected at Brest University hospital. The system was evaluated in terms of area under the ROC curve. Promising results were obtained using either the presence of surgical tools ($A_z$ = 0.983) or motion analysis ($A_z$ = 0.759). The generality of the method allows to adapt it to any kinds of surgeries. The proposed solution could be used in a computer assisted surgery tool to support surgeons during the surgery.

* This is an extended version of a paper presented at the CBMI 2016 conference 

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A Survey on Machine Learning for Geo-Distributed Cloud Data Center Management

May 17, 2022
Ninad Hogade, Sudeep Pasricha

Cloud workloads today are typically managed in a distributed environment and processed across geographically distributed data centers. Cloud service providers have been distributing data centers globally to reduce operating costs while also improving quality of service by using intelligent workload and resource management strategies. Such large scale and complex orchestration of software workload and hardware resources remains a difficult problem to solve efficiently. Researchers and practitioners have been trying to address this problem by proposing a variety of cloud management techniques. Mathematical optimization techniques have historically been used to address cloud management issues. But these techniques are difficult to scale to geo-distributed problem sizes and have limited applicability in dynamic heterogeneous system environments, forcing cloud service providers to explore intelligent data-driven and Machine Learning (ML) based alternatives. The characterization, prediction, control, and optimization of complex, heterogeneous, and ever-changing distributed cloud resources and workloads employing ML methodologies have received much attention in recent years. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art ML techniques for the cloud data center management problem. We examine the challenges and the issues in current research focused on ML for cloud management and explore strategies for addressing these issues. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of ML techniques presented in the recent literature and make recommendations for future research directions.


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Performative Power

Mar 31, 2022
Moritz Hardt, Meena Jagadeesan, Celestine Mendler-Dünner

We introduce the notion of performative power, which measures the ability of a firm operating an algorithmic system, such as a digital content recommendation platform, to steer a population. We relate performative power to the economic theory of market power. Traditional economic concepts are well known to struggle with identifying anti-competitive patterns in digital platforms--a core challenge is the difficulty of defining the market, its participants, products, and prices. Performative power sidesteps the problem of market definition by focusing on a directly observable statistical measure instead. High performative power enables a platform to profit from steering participant behavior, whereas low performative power ensures that learning from historical data is close to optimal. Our first general result shows that under low performative power, a firm cannot do better than standard supervised learning on observed data. We draw an analogy with a firm being a price-taker, an economic condition that arises under perfect competition in classical market models. We then contrast this with a market where performative power is concentrated and show that the equilibrium state can differ significantly. We go on to study performative power in a concrete setting of strategic classification where participants can switch between competing firms. We show that monopolies maximize performative power and disutility for the participant, while competition and outside options decrease performative power. We end on a discussion of connections to measures of market power in economics and of the relationship with ongoing antitrust debates.


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LEAPMood: Light and Efficient Architecture to Predict Mood with Genetic Algorithm driven Hyperparameter Tuning

Feb 08, 2022
Harichandana B S S, Sumit Kumar

Accurate and automatic detection of mood serves as a building block for use cases like user profiling which in turn power applications such as advertising, recommendation systems, and many more. One primary source indicative of an individual's mood is textual data. While there has been extensive research on emotion recognition, the field of mood prediction has been barely explored. In addition, very little work is done in the area of on-device inferencing, which is highly important from the user privacy point of view. In this paper, we propose for the first time, an on-device deep learning approach for mood prediction from textual data, LEAPMood. We use a novel on-device deployment-focused objective function for hyperparameter tuning based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and optimize the parameters concerning both performance and size. LEAPMood consists of Emotion Recognition in Conversion (ERC) as the first building block followed by mood prediction using K-means clustering. We show that using a combination of character embedding, phonetic hashing, and attention along with Conditional Random Fields (CRF), results in a performance closely comparable to that of the current State-Of-the-Art with a significant reduction in model size (> 90%) for the task of ERC. We achieve a Micro F1 score of 62.05% with a memory footprint of a mere 1.67MB on the DailyDialog dataset. Furthermore, we curate a dataset for the task of mood prediction achieving a Macro F1-score of 72.12% with LEAPMood.

* Accepted at 16th IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC), January 26-28, 2022 [update: This paper won the "Best Paper Award" at ICSC 2022] 

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