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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Vehicle Trajectory Prediction in City-scale Road Networks using a Direction-based Sequence-to-Sequence Model with Spatiotemporal Attention Mechanisms

Jun 21, 2021
Yuebing Liang, Zhan Zhao

Trajectory prediction of vehicles at the city scale is of great importance to various location-based applications such as vehicle navigation, traffic management, and location-based recommendations. Existing methods typically represent a trajectory as a sequence of grid cells, road segments or intention sets. None of them is ideal, as the cell-based representation ignores the road network structures and the other two are less efficient in analyzing city-scale road networks. In addition, most models focus on predicting the immediate next position, and are difficult to generalize for longer sequences. To address these problems, we propose a novel sequence-to-sequence model named D-LSTM (Direction-based Long Short-Term Memory), which represents each trajectory as a sequence of intersections and associated movement directions, and then feeds them into a LSTM encoder-decoder network for future trajectory generation. Furthermore, we introduce a spatial attention mechanism to capture dynamic spatial dependencies in road networks, and a temporal attention mechanism with a sliding context window to capture both short- and long-term temporal dependencies in trajectory data. Extensive experiments based on two real-world large-scale taxi trajectory datasets show that D-LSTM outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods for vehicle trajectory prediction, validating the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory representation method and spatiotemporal attention mechanisms.

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MCMIA: Model Compression Against Membership Inference Attack in Deep Neural Networks

Aug 28, 2020
Yijue Wang, Chenghong Wang, Zigeng Wang, Shanglin Zhou, Hang Liu, Jinbo Bi, Caiwen Ding, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran

Deep learning or deep neural networks (DNNs) have nowadays enabled high performance, including but not limited to fraud detection, recommendations, and different kinds of analytical transactions. However, the large model size, high computational cost, and vulnerability against membership inference attack (MIA) have impeded its popularity, especially on resource-constrained edge devices. As the first attempt to simultaneously address these challenges, we envision that DNN model compression technique will help deep learning models against MIA while reducing model storage and computational cost. We jointly formulate model compression and MIA as MCMIA, and provide an analytic method of solving the problem. We evaluate our method on LeNet-5, VGG16, MobileNetV2, ResNet18 on different datasets including MNIST, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet. Experimental results show that our MCMIA model can reduce the attack accuracy, therefore reduce the information leakage from MIA. Our proposed method significantly outperforms differential privacy (DP) on MIA. Compared with our MCMIA--Pruning, our MCMIA--Pruning \& Min-Max game can achieve the lowest attack accuracy, therefore maximally enhance DNN model privacy. Thanks to the hardware-friendly characteristic of model compression, our proposed MCMIA is especially useful in deploying DNNs on resource-constrained platforms in a privacy-preserving manner.

* Machine Learning (cs.LG); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR); Machine Learning (stat.ML) 

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A Survey and Insights on Deployments of the Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in US

Aug 10, 2020
Sanchu Han

CV/ITS (Connected Vehicle, Intelligent Transportation System) and AV/ADS (Autonomous Vehicle, Automated Driving System) have been emerging for the sake of saving people lives, improving traffic efficiency and helping the environment for decades. There are separate efforts led respectively by USDOT with state DOTs for CV, and private sectors through market driven approach from start-ups and technology companies for AV. By CV/ITS effort there are 97 deployments of V2X communications utilizing the 5.9 GHz band, 18,877 vehicles with aftermarket V2X communications devices, and 8,098 infrastructure V2X devices installed at the roadsides. However, CV/ITS still cannot be massively deployed in US markets due to lack of regulations, dedicated wireless spectrum bands, sustainable financial & business models with mature supply chain, etc. In the other side, technology-driven AV market has been much slower than expected mainly because of immaturity of AI technology to handle different complex driving scenarios in a cost effective way. In this paper, we first present these two parallel journeys focusing on the deployments including operating models, scenarios and applications, evaluations and lessons learning. Then, come up with recommendations to a cooperative CAV approach driving a more feasible, safer, affordable and cost effective transportation, but require a great industry collaboration from Automotive, Transportation. ICT and Cloud.

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Data Warehouse and Decision Support on Integrated Crop Big Data

Mar 10, 2020
V. M. Ngo, N. A. Le-Khac, M. T. Kechadi

In recent years, precision agriculture is becoming very popular. The introduction of modern information and communication technologies for collecting and processing Agricultural data revolutionise the agriculture practises. This has started a while ago (early 20th century) and it is driven by the low cost of collecting data about everything; from information on fields such as seed, soil, fertiliser, pest, to weather data, drones and satellites images. Specially, the agricultural data mining today is considered as Big Data application in terms of volume, variety, velocity and veracity. Hence it leads to challenges in processing vast amounts of complex and diverse information to extract useful knowledge for the farmer, agronomist, and other businesses. It is a key foundation to establishing a crop intelligence platform, which will enable efficient resource management and high quality agronomy decision making and recommendations. In this paper, we designed and implemented a continental level agricultural data warehouse (ADW). ADW is characterised by its (1) flexible schema; (2) data integration from real agricultural multi datasets; (3) data science and business intelligent support; (4) high performance; (5) high storage; (6) security; (7) governance and monitoring; (8) consistency, availability and partition tolerant; (9) cloud compatibility. We also evaluate the performance of ADW and present some complex queries to extract and return necessary knowledge about crop management.

* IJBPIM 2020 
* 13 pages 

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Hotel2vec: Learning Attribute-Aware Hotel Embeddings with Self-Supervision

Sep 30, 2019
Ali Sadeghian, Shervin Minaee, Ioannis Partalas, Xinxin Li, Daisy Zhe Wang, Brooke Cowan

We propose a neural network architecture for learning vector representations of hotels. Unlike previous works, which typically only use user click information for learning item embeddings, we propose a framework that combines several sources of data, including user clicks, hotel attributes (e.g., property type, star rating, average user rating), amenity information (e.g., the hotel has free Wi-Fi or free breakfast), and geographic information. During model training, a joint embedding is learned from all of the above information. We show that including structured attributes about hotels enables us to make better predictions in a downstream task than when we rely exclusively on click data. We train our embedding model on more than 40 million user click sessions from a leading online travel platform and learn embeddings for more than one million hotels. Our final learned embeddings integrate distinct sub-embeddings for user clicks, hotel attributes, and geographic information, providing an interpretable representation that can be used flexibly depending on the application. We show empirically that our model generates high-quality representations that boost the performance of a hotel recommendation system in addition to other applications. An important advantage of the proposed neural model is that it addresses the cold-start problem for hotels with insufficient historical click information by incorporating additional hotel attributes which are available for all hotels.

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KLUCB Approach to Copeland Bandits

Feb 07, 2019
Nischal Agrawal, Prasanna Chaporkar

Multi-armed bandit(MAB) problem is a reinforcement learning framework where an agent tries to maximise her profit by proper selection of actions through absolute feedback for each action. The dueling bandits problem is a variation of MAB problem in which an agent chooses a pair of actions and receives relative feedback for the chosen action pair. The dueling bandits problem is well suited for modelling a setting in which it is not possible to provide quantitative feedback for each action, but qualitative feedback for each action is preferred as in the case of human feedback. The dueling bandits have been successfully applied in applications such as online rank elicitation, information retrieval, search engine improvement and clinical online recommendation. We propose a new method called Sup-KLUCB for K-armed dueling bandit problem specifically Copeland bandit problem by converting it into a standard MAB problem. Instead of using MAB algorithm independently for each action in a pair as in Sparring and in Self-Sparring algorithms, we combine a pair of action and use it as one action. Previous UCB algorithms such as Relative Upper Confidence Bound(RUCB) can be applied only in case of Condorcet dueling bandits, whereas this algorithm applies to general Copeland dueling bandits, including Condorcet dueling bandits as a special case. Our empirical results outperform state of the art Double Thompson Sampling(DTS) in case of Copeland dueling bandits.

* 10 pages, 2 figures 

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Competitive caching with machine learned advice

Jul 04, 2018
Thodoris Lykouris, Sergei Vassilvitskii

Traditional online algorithms encapsulate decision making under uncertainty, and give ways to hedge against all possible future events, while guaranteeing a nearly optimal solution as compared to an offline optimum. On the other hand, machine learning algorithms are in the business of extrapolating patterns found in the data to predict the future, and usually come with strong guarantees on the expected generalization error. In this work we develop a framework for augmenting online algorithms with a machine learned oracle to achieve competitive ratios that provably improve upon unconditional worst case lower bounds when the oracle has low error. Our approach treats the oracle as a complete black box, and is not dependent on its inner workings, or the exact distribution of its errors. We apply this framework to the traditional caching problem -- creating an eviction strategy for a cache of size $k$. We demonstrate that naively following the oracle's recommendations may lead to very poor performance, even when the average error is quite low. Instead we show how to modify the Marker algorithm to take into account the oracle's predictions, and prove that this combined approach achieves a competitive ratio that both (i) decreases as the oracle's error decreases, and (ii) is always capped by $O(\log k)$, which can be achieved without any oracle input. We complement our results with an empirical evaluation of our algorithm on real world datasets, and show that it performs well empirically even using simple off-the-shelf predictions.

* To appear in ICML 2018 

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Learning to Hash-tag Videos with Tag2Vec

Dec 13, 2016
Aditya Singh, Saurabh Saini, Rajvi Shah, PJ Narayanan

User-given tags or labels are valuable resources for semantic understanding of visual media such as images and videos. Recently, a new type of labeling mechanism known as hash-tags have become increasingly popular on social media sites. In this paper, we study the problem of generating relevant and useful hash-tags for short video clips. Traditional data-driven approaches for tag enrichment and recommendation use direct visual similarity for label transfer and propagation. We attempt to learn a direct low-cost mapping from video to hash-tags using a two step training process. We first employ a natural language processing (NLP) technique, skip-gram models with neural network training to learn a low-dimensional vector representation of hash-tags (Tag2Vec) using a corpus of 10 million hash-tags. We then train an embedding function to map video features to the low-dimensional Tag2vec space. We learn this embedding for 29 categories of short video clips with hash-tags. A query video without any tag-information can then be directly mapped to the vector space of tags using the learned embedding and relevant tags can be found by performing a simple nearest-neighbor retrieval in the Tag2Vec space. We validate the relevance of the tags suggested by our system qualitatively and quantitatively with a user study.

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A Unified Gender-Aware Age Estimation

Sep 13, 2016
Qing Tian, Songcan Chen, Xiaoyang Tan

Human age estimation has attracted increasing researches due to its wide applicability in such as security monitoring and advertisement recommendation. Although a variety of methods have been proposed, most of them focus only on the age-specific facial appearance. However, biological researches have shown that not only gender but also the aging difference between the male and the female inevitably affect the age estimation. To our knowledge, so far there have been two methods that have concerned the gender factor. The first is a sequential method which first classifies the gender and then performs age estimation respectively for classified male and female. Although it promotes age estimation performance because of its consideration on the gender semantic difference, an accumulation risk of estimation errors is unavoidable. To overcome drawbacks of the sequential strategy, the second is to regress the age appended with the gender by concatenating their labels as two dimensional output using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Although leading to promotion of age estimation performance, such a concatenation not only likely confuses the semantics between the gender and age, but also ignores the aging discrepancy between the male and the female. In order to overcome their shortcomings, in this paper we propose a unified framework to perform gender-aware age estimation. The proposed method considers and utilizes not only the semantic relationship between the gender and the age, but also the aging discrepancy between the male and the female. Finally, experimental results demonstrate not only the superiority of our method in performance, but also its good interpretability in revealing the aging discrepancy.

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Comparison of Bayesian predictive methods for model selection

Mar 23, 2016
Juho Piironen, Aki Vehtari

The goal of this paper is to compare several widely used Bayesian model selection methods in practical model selection problems, highlight their differences and give recommendations about the preferred approaches. We focus on the variable subset selection for regression and classification and perform several numerical experiments using both simulated and real world data. The results show that the optimization of a utility estimate such as the cross-validation (CV) score is liable to finding overfitted models due to relatively high variance in the utility estimates when the data is scarce. This can also lead to substantial selection induced bias and optimism in the performance evaluation for the selected model. From a predictive viewpoint, best results are obtained by accounting for model uncertainty by forming the full encompassing model, such as the Bayesian model averaging solution over the candidate models. If the encompassing model is too complex, it can be robustly simplified by the projection method, in which the information of the full model is projected onto the submodels. This approach is substantially less prone to overfitting than selection based on CV-score. Overall, the projection method appears to outperform also the maximum a posteriori model and the selection of the most probable variables. The study also demonstrates that the model selection can greatly benefit from using cross-validation outside the searching process both for guiding the model size selection and assessing the predictive performance of the finally selected model.

* Statistics and Computing, 2017, Volume 27, Issue 3, 711-735 
* A few minor changes; added a few sentences, corrected some grammatical errors and modified Figure 7 

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