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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Off-policy Learning for Multiple Loggers

Jul 23, 2019
Li He, Long Xia, Wei Zeng, Zhi-Ming Ma, Yihong Zhao, Dawei Yin

It is well known that the historical logs are used for evaluating and learning policies in interactive systems, e.g. recommendation, search, and online advertising. Since direct online policy learning usually harms user experiences, it is more crucial to apply off-policy learning in real-world applications instead. Though there have been some existing works, most are focusing on learning with one single historical policy. However, in practice, usually a number of parallel experiments, e.g. multiple AB tests, are performed simultaneously. To make full use of such historical data, learning policies from multiple loggers becomes necessary. Motivated by this, in this paper, we investigate off-policy learning when the training data coming from multiple historical policies. Specifically, policies, e.g. neural networks, can be learned directly from multi-logger data, with counterfactual estimators. In order to understand the generalization ability of such estimator better, we conduct generalization error analysis for the empirical risk minimization problem. We then introduce the generalization error bound as the new risk function, which can be reduced to a constrained optimization problem. Finally, we give the corresponding learning algorithm for the new constrained problem, where we can appeal to the minimax problems to control the constraints. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve better performances than the state-of-the-arts.

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An Experimental-based Review of Image Enhancement and Image Restoration Methods for Underwater Imaging

Jul 07, 2019
Yan Wang, Wei Song, Giancarlo Fortino, Lizhe Qi, Wenqiang Zhang, Antonio Liotta

Underwater images play a key role in ocean exploration, but often suffer from severe quality degradation due to light absorption and scattering in water medium. Although major breakthroughs have been made recently in the general area of image enhancement and restoration, the applicability of new methods for improving the quality of underwater images has not specifically been captured. In this paper, we review the image enhancement and restoration methods that tackle typical underwater image impairments, including some extreme degradations and distortions. Firstly, we introduce the key causes of quality reduction in underwater images, in terms of the underwater image formation model (IFM). Then, we review underwater restoration methods, considering both the IFM-free and the IFM-based approaches. Next, we present an experimental-based comparative evaluation of state-of-the-art IFM-free and IFM-based methods, considering also the prior-based parameter estimation algorithms of the IFM-based methods, using both subjective and objective analysis (the used code is freely available at Starting from this study, we pinpoint the key shortcomings of existing methods, drawing recommendations for future research in this area. Our review of underwater image enhancement and restoration provides researchers with the necessary background to appreciate challenges and opportunities in this important field.

* 19 

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Fast Matrix Factorization with Non-Uniform Weights on Missing Data

Nov 11, 2018
Xiangnan He, Jinhui Tang, Xiaoyu Du, Richang Hong, Tongwei Ren, Tat-Seng Chua

Matrix factorization (MF) has been widely used to discover the low-rank structure and to predict the missing entries of data matrix. In many real-world learning systems, the data matrix can be very high-dimensional but sparse. This poses an imbalanced learning problem, since the scale of missing entries is usually much larger than that of observed entries, but they cannot be ignored due to the valuable negative signal. For efficiency concern, existing work typically applies a uniform weight on missing entries to allow a fast learning algorithm. However, this simplification will decrease modeling fidelity, resulting in suboptimal performance for downstream applications. In this work, we weight the missing data non-uniformly, and more generically, we allow any weighting strategy on the missing data. To address the efficiency challenge, we propose a fast learning method, for which the time complexity is determined by the number of observed entries in the data matrix, rather than the matrix size. The key idea is two-fold: 1) we apply truncated SVD on the weight matrix to get a more compact representation of the weights, and 2) we learn MF parameters with element-wise alternating least squares (eALS) and memorize the key intermediate variables to avoid repeating computations that are unnecessary. We conduct extensive experiments on two recommendation benchmarks, demonstrating the correctness, efficiency, and effectiveness of our fast eALS method.

* IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems (TNNLS) 

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DeepInf: Social Influence Prediction with Deep Learning

Jul 15, 2018
Jiezhong Qiu, Jian Tang, Hao Ma, Yuxiao Dong, Kuansan Wang, Jie Tang

Social and information networking activities such as on Facebook, Twitter, WeChat, and Weibo have become an indispensable part of our everyday life, where we can easily access friends' behaviors and are in turn influenced by them. Consequently, an effective social influence prediction for each user is critical for a variety of applications such as online recommendation and advertising. Conventional social influence prediction approaches typically design various hand-crafted rules to extract user- and network-specific features. However, their effectiveness heavily relies on the knowledge of domain experts. As a result, it is usually difficult to generalize them into different domains. Inspired by the recent success of deep neural networks in a wide range of computing applications, we design an end-to-end framework, DeepInf, to learn users' latent feature representation for predicting social influence. In general, DeepInf takes a user's local network as the input to a graph neural network for learning her latent social representation. We design strategies to incorporate both network structures and user-specific features into convolutional neural and attention networks. Extensive experiments on Open Academic Graph, Twitter, Weibo, and Digg, representing different types of social and information networks, demonstrate that the proposed end-to-end model, DeepInf, significantly outperforms traditional feature engineering-based approaches, suggesting the effectiveness of representation learning for social applications.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, to appear in KDD 2018 proceedings 

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Influence-guided Data Augmentation for Neural Tensor Completion

Aug 23, 2021
Sejoon Oh, Sungchul Kim, Ryan A. Rossi, Srijan Kumar

How can we predict missing values in multi-dimensional data (or tensors) more accurately? The task of tensor completion is crucial in many applications such as personalized recommendation, image and video restoration, and link prediction in social networks. Many tensor factorization and neural network-based tensor completion algorithms have been developed to predict missing entries in partially observed tensors. However, they can produce inaccurate estimations as real-world tensors are very sparse, and these methods tend to overfit on the small amount of data. Here, we overcome these shortcomings by presenting a data augmentation technique for tensors. In this paper, we propose DAIN, a general data augmentation framework that enhances the prediction accuracy of neural tensor completion methods. Specifically, DAIN first trains a neural model and finds tensor cell importances with influence functions. After that, DAIN aggregates the cell importance to calculate the importance of each entity (i.e., an index of a dimension). Finally, DAIN augments the tensor by weighted sampling of entity importances and a value predictor. Extensive experimental results show that DAIN outperforms all data augmentation baselines in terms of enhancing imputation accuracy of neural tensor completion on four diverse real-world tensors. Ablation studies of DAIN substantiate the effectiveness of each component of DAIN. Furthermore, we show that DAIN scales near linearly to large datasets.

* Accepted for publication at 30th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (ACM CIKM 2021). Code and data: 

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Indexability and Rollout Policy for Multi-State Partially Observable Restless Bandits

Jul 30, 2021
Rahul Meshram, Kesav Kaza

Restless multi-armed bandits with partially observable states has applications in communication systems, age of information and recommendation systems. In this paper, we study multi-state partially observable restless bandit models. We consider three different models based on information observable to decision maker -- 1) no information is observable from actions of a bandit 2) perfect information from bandit is observable only for one action on bandit, there is a fixed restart state, i.e., transition occurs from all other states to that state 3) perfect state information is available to decision maker for both actions on a bandit and there are two restart state for two actions. We develop the structural properties. We also show a threshold type policy and indexability for model 2 and 3. We present Monte Carlo (MC) rollout policy. We use it for whittle index computation in case of model 2. We obtain the concentration bound on value function in terms of horizon length and number of trajectories for MC rollout policy. We derive explicit index formula for model 3. We finally describe Monte Carlo rollout policy for model 1 when it is difficult to show indexability. We demonstrate the numerical examples using myopic policy, Monte Carlo rollout policy and Whittle index policy. We observe that Monte Carlo rollout policy is good competitive policy to myopic.

* 8 pages, submitted to CDC 

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Towards Building a Food Knowledge Graph for Internet of Food

Jul 13, 2021
Weiqing Min, Chunlin Liu, Shuqiang Jiang

Background: The deployment of various networks (e.g., Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile networks) and databases (e.g., nutrition tables and food compositional databases) in the food system generates massive information silos due to the well-known data harmonization problem. The food knowledge graph provides a unified and standardized conceptual terminology and their relationships in a structured form and thus can transform these information silos across the whole food system to a more reusable globally digitally connected Internet of Food, enabling every stage of the food system from farm-to-fork. Scope and approach: We review the evolution of food knowledge organization, from food classification, food ontology to food knowledge graphs. We then discuss the progress in food knowledge graphs from several representative applications. We finally discuss the main challenges and future directions. Key findings and conclusions: Our comprehensive summary of current research on food knowledge graphs shows that food knowledge graphs play an important role in food-oriented applications, including food search and Question Answering (QA), personalized dietary recommendation, food analysis and visualization, food traceability, and food machinery intelligent manufacturing. Future directions for food knowledge graphs cover several fields such as multimodal food knowledge graphs and food intelligence.

* 18 pages, 2 figures 

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AR-based Modern Healthcare: A Review

Jan 16, 2021
Jinat Ara, Hanif Bhuiyan, Yeasin Arafat Bhuiyan, Salma Begum Bhyan, Muhammad Ismail Bhuiyan

The recent advances of Augmented Reality (AR) in healthcare have shown that technology is a significant part of the current healthcare system. In recent days, augmented reality has proposed numerous smart applications in healthcare domain including wearable access, telemedicine, remote surgery, diagnosis of medical reports, emergency medicine, etc. The aim of the developed augmented healthcare application is to improve patient care, increase efficiency, and decrease costs. This article puts on an effort to review the advances in AR-based healthcare technologies and goes to peek into the strategies that are being taken to further this branch of technology. This article explores the important services of augmented-based healthcare solutions and throws light on recently invented ones as well as their respective platforms. It also addresses concurrent concerns and their relevant future challenges. In addition, this paper analyzes distinct AR security and privacy including security requirements and attack terminologies. Furthermore, this paper proposes a security model to minimize security risks. Augmented reality advantages in healthcare, especially for operating surgery, emergency diagnosis, and medical training is being demonstrated here thorough proper analysis. To say the least, the article illustrates a complete overview of augmented reality technology in the modern healthcare sector by demonstrating its impacts, advancements, current vulnerabilities; future challenges, and concludes with recommendations to a new direction for further research.

* 14 pages, 7 figures, and 2 tables 

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Simplified DOM Trees for Transferable Attribute Extraction from the Web

Jan 07, 2021
Yichao Zhou, Ying Sheng, Nguyen Vo, Nick Edmonds, Sandeep Tata

There has been a steady need to precisely extract structured knowledge from the web (i.e. HTML documents). Given a web page, extracting a structured object along with various attributes of interest (e.g. price, publisher, author, and genre for a book) can facilitate a variety of downstream applications such as large-scale knowledge base construction, e-commerce product search, and personalized recommendation. Considering each web page is rendered from an HTML DOM tree, existing approaches formulate the problem as a DOM tree node tagging task. However, they either rely on computationally expensive visual feature engineering or are incapable of modeling the relationship among the tree nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel transferable method, Simplified DOM Trees for Attribute Extraction (SimpDOM), to tackle the problem by efficiently retrieving useful context for each node by leveraging the tree structure. We study two challenging experimental settings: (i) intra-vertical few-shot extraction, and (ii) cross-vertical fewshot extraction with out-of-domain knowledge, to evaluate our approach. Extensive experiments on the SWDE public dataset show that SimpDOM outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) method by 1.44% on the F1 score. We also find that utilizing knowledge from a different vertical (cross-vertical extraction) is surprisingly useful and helps beat the SOTA by a further 1.37%.

* 10 pages, 9 figures 

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GNN-XML: Graph Neural Networks for Extreme Multi-label Text Classification

Dec 10, 2020
Daoming Zong, Shiliang Sun

Extreme multi-label text classification (XMTC) aims to tag a text instance with the most relevant subset of labels from an extremely large label set. XMTC has attracted much recent attention due to massive label sets yielded by modern applications, such as news annotation and product recommendation. The main challenges of XMTC are the data scalability and sparsity, thereby leading to two issues: i) the intractability to scale to the extreme label setting, ii) the presence of long-tailed label distribution, implying that a large fraction of labels have few positive training instances. To overcome these problems, we propose GNN-XML, a scalable graph neural network framework tailored for XMTC problems. Specifically, we exploit label correlations via mining their co-occurrence patterns and build a label graph based on the correlation matrix. We then conduct the attributed graph clustering by performing graph convolution with a low-pass graph filter to jointly model label dependencies and label features, which induces semantic label clusters. We further propose a bilateral-branch graph isomorphism network to decouple representation learning and classifier learning for better modeling tail labels. Experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets show that GNN-XML significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods while maintaining comparable prediction efficiency and model size.

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