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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

A movie genre prediction based on Multivariate Bernoulli model and genre correlations

Mar 25, 2016
Eric Makita, Artem Lenskiy

Movie ratings play an important role both in determining the likelihood of a potential viewer to watch the movie and in reflecting the current viewer satisfaction with the movie. They are available in several sources like the television guide, best-selling reference books, newspaper columns, and television programs. Furthermore, movie ratings are crucial for recommendation engines that track the behavior of all users and utilize the information to suggest items they might like. Movie ratings in most cases, thus, provide information that might be more important than movie feature-based data. It is intuitively appealing that information about the viewing preferences in movie genres is sufficient for predicting a genre of an unlabeled movie. In order to predict movie genres, we treat ratings as a feature vector, apply the Bernoulli event model to estimate the likelihood of a movies given genre, and evaluate the posterior probability of the genre of a given movie using the Bayes rule. The goal of the proposed technique is to efficiently use the movie ratings for the task of predicting movie genres. In our approach we attempted to answer the question: "Given the set of users who watched a movie, is it possible to predict the genre of a movie based on its ratings?" Our simulation results with MovieLens 100k data demonstrated the efficiency and accuracy of our proposed technique, achieving 59% prediction rate for exact prediction and 69% when including correlated genres.

* 5 pages, 8 figues, 1 table 

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Discriminative Link Prediction using Local Links, Node Features and Community Structure

Oct 17, 2013
Abir De, Niloy Ganguly, Soumen Chakrabarti

A link prediction (LP) algorithm is given a graph, and has to rank, for each node, other nodes that are candidates for new linkage. LP is strongly motivated by social search and recommendation applications. LP techniques often focus on global properties (graph conductance, hitting or commute times, Katz score) or local properties (Adamic-Adar and many variations, or node feature vectors), but rarely combine these signals. Furthermore, neither of these extremes exploit link densities at the intermediate level of communities. In this paper we describe a discriminative LP algorithm that exploits two new signals. First, a co-clustering algorithm provides community level link density estimates, which are used to qualify observed links with a surprise value. Second, links in the immediate neighborhood of the link to be predicted are not interpreted at face value, but through a local model of node feature similarities. These signals are combined into a discriminative link predictor. We evaluate the new predictor using five diverse data sets that are standard in the literature. We report on significant accuracy boosts compared to standard LP methods (including Adamic-Adar and random walk). Apart from the new predictor, another contribution is a rigorous protocol for benchmarking and reporting LP algorithms, which reveals the regions of strengths and weaknesses of all the predictors studied here, and establishes the new proposal as the most robust.

* 10 pages, 5 figures 

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Knowledge Tracing: A Survey

Jan 08, 2022
Ghodai Abdelrahman, Qing Wang, Bernardo Pereira Nunes

Humans ability to transfer knowledge through teaching is one of the essential aspects for human intelligence. A human teacher can track the knowledge of students to customize the teaching on students needs. With the rise of online education platforms, there is a similar need for machines to track the knowledge of students and tailor their learning experience. This is known as the Knowledge Tracing (KT) problem in the literature. Effectively solving the KT problem would unlock the potential of computer-aided education applications such as intelligent tutoring systems, curriculum learning, and learning materials' recommendation. Moreover, from a more general viewpoint, a student may represent any kind of intelligent agents including both human and artificial agents. Thus, the potential of KT can be extended to any machine teaching application scenarios which seek for customizing the learning experience for a student agent (i.e., a machine learning model). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and systematic review for the KT literature. We cover a broad range of methods starting from the early attempts to the recent state-of-the-art methods using deep learning, while highlighting the theoretical aspects of models and the characteristics of benchmark datasets. Besides these, we shed light on key modelling differences between closely related methods and summarize them in an easy-to-understand format. Finally, we discuss current research gaps in the KT literature and possible future research and application directions.

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Measuring Cognitive Status from Speech in a Smart Home Environment

Oct 18, 2021
Kathleen C. Fraser, Majid Komeili

The population is aging, and becoming more tech-savvy. The United Nations predicts that by 2050, one in six people in the world will be over age 65 (up from one in 11 in 2019), and this increases to one in four in Europe and Northern America. Meanwhile, the proportion of American adults over 65 who own a smartphone has risen 24 percentage points from 2013-2017, and the majority have Internet in their homes. Smart devices and smart home technology have profound potential to transform how people age, their ability to live independently in later years, and their interactions with their circle of care. Cognitive health is a key component to independence and well-being in old age, and smart homes present many opportunities to measure cognitive status in a continuous, unobtrusive manner. In this article, we focus on speech as a measurement instrument for cognitive health. Existing methods of cognitive assessment suffer from a number of limitations that could be addressed through smart home speech sensing technologies. We begin with a brief tutorial on measuring cognitive status from speech, including some pointers to useful open-source software toolboxes for the interested reader. We then present an overview of the preliminary results from pilot studies on active and passive smart home speech sensing for the measurement of cognitive health, and conclude with some recommendations and challenge statements for the next wave of work in this area, to help overcome both technical and ethical barriers to success.

* IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine (Volume: 24, Issue: 6, September 2021) 

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Memory-Efficient Factorization Machines via Binarizing both Data and Model Coefficients

Aug 17, 2021
Yu Geng, Liang Lan

Factorization Machines (FM), a general predictor that can efficiently model feature interactions in linear time, was primarily proposed for collaborative recommendation and have been broadly used for regression, classification and ranking tasks. Subspace Encoding Factorization Machine (SEFM) has been proposed recently to overcome the expressiveness limitation of Factorization Machines (FM) by applying explicit nonlinear feature mapping for both individual features and feature interactions through one-hot encoding to each input feature. Despite the effectiveness of SEFM, it increases the memory cost of FM by $b$ times, where $b$ is the number of bins when applying one-hot encoding on each input feature. To reduce the memory cost of SEFM, we propose a new method called Binarized FM which constraints the model parameters to be binary values (i.e., 1 or $-1$). Then each parameter value can be efficiently stored in one bit. Our proposed method can significantly reduce the memory cost of SEFM model. In addition, we propose a new algorithm to effectively and efficiently learn proposed FM with binary constraints using Straight Through Estimator (STE) with Adaptive Gradient Descent (Adagrad). Finally, we evaluate the performance of our proposed method on eight different classification datasets. Our experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed method achieves comparable accuracy with SEFM but with much less memory cost.

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Dueling Bandits with Adversarial Sleeping

Jul 05, 2021
Aadirupa Saha, Pierre Gaillard

We introduce the problem of sleeping dueling bandits with stochastic preferences and adversarial availabilities (DB-SPAA). In almost all dueling bandit applications, the decision space often changes over time; eg, retail store management, online shopping, restaurant recommendation, search engine optimization, etc. Surprisingly, this `sleeping aspect' of dueling bandits has never been studied in the literature. Like dueling bandits, the goal is to compete with the best arm by sequentially querying the preference feedback of item pairs. The non-triviality however results due to the non-stationary item spaces that allow any arbitrary subsets items to go unavailable every round. The goal is to find an optimal `no-regret' policy that can identify the best available item at each round, as opposed to the standard `fixed best-arm regret objective' of dueling bandits. We first derive an instance-specific lower bound for DB-SPAA $\Omega( \sum_{i =1}^{K-1}\sum_{j=i+1}^K \frac{\log T}{\Delta(i,j)})$, where $K$ is the number of items and $\Delta(i,j)$ is the gap between items $i$ and $j$. This indicates that the sleeping problem with preference feedback is inherently more difficult than that for classical multi-armed bandits (MAB). We then propose two algorithms, with near optimal regret guarantees. Our results are corroborated empirically.

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SHORING: Design Provable Conditional High-Order Interaction Network via Symbolic Testing

Jul 03, 2021
Hui Li, Xing Fu, Ruofan Wu, Jinyu Xu, Kai Xiao, Xiaofu Chang, Weiqiang Wang, Shuai Chen, Leilei Shi, Tao Xiong, Yuan Qi

Deep learning provides a promising way to extract effective representations from raw data in an end-to-end fashion and has proven its effectiveness in various domains such as computer vision, natural language processing, etc. However, in domains such as content/product recommendation and risk management, where sequence of event data is the most used raw data form and experts derived features are more commonly used, deep learning models struggle to dominate the game. In this paper, we propose a symbolic testing framework that helps to answer the question of what kinds of expert-derived features could be learned by a neural network. Inspired by this testing framework, we introduce an efficient architecture named SHORING, which contains two components: \textit{event network} and \textit{sequence network}. The \textit{event} network learns arbitrarily yet efficiently high-order \textit{event-level} embeddings via a provable reparameterization trick, the \textit{sequence} network aggregates from sequence of \textit{event-level} embeddings. We argue that SHORING is capable of learning certain standard symbolic expressions which the standard multi-head self-attention network fails to learn, and conduct comprehensive experiments and ablation studies on four synthetic datasets and three real-world datasets. The results show that SHORING empirically outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

* 18 pages, 4 figures 

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A Graph Neural Network Approach for Product Relationship Prediction

May 12, 2021
Faez Ahmed, Yaxin Cui, Yan Fu, Wei Chen

Graph Neural Networks have revolutionized many machine learning tasks in recent years, ranging from drug discovery, recommendation systems, image classification, social network analysis to natural language understanding. This paper shows their efficacy in modeling relationships between products and making predictions for unseen product networks. By representing products as nodes and their relationships as edges of a graph, we show how an inductive graph neural network approach, named GraphSAGE, can efficiently learn continuous representations for nodes and edges. These representations also capture product feature information such as price, brand, or engineering attributes. They are combined with a classification model for predicting the existence of the relationship between products. Using a case study of the Chinese car market, we find that our method yields double the prediction performance compared to an Exponential Random Graph Model-based method for predicting the co-consideration relationship between cars. While a vanilla GraphSAGE requires a partial network to make predictions, we introduce an `adjacency prediction model' to circumvent this limitation. This enables us to predict product relationships when no neighborhood information is known. Finally, we demonstrate how a permutation-based interpretability analysis can provide insights on how design attributes impact the predictions of relationships between products. This work provides a systematic method to predict the relationships between products in many different markets.

* Paper accepted in ASME IDETC 2021 

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Entity Context Graph: Learning Entity Representations fromSemi-Structured Textual Sources on the Web

Mar 29, 2021
Kalpa Gunaratna, Yu Wang, Hongxia Jin

Knowledge is captured in the form of entities and their relationships and stored in knowledge graphs. Knowledge graphs enhance the capabilities of applications in many different areas including Web search, recommendation, and natural language understanding. This is mainly because, entities enable machines to understand things that go beyond simple tokens. Many modern algorithms use learned entity embeddings from these structured representations. However, building a knowledge graph takes time and effort, hence very costly and nontrivial. On the other hand, many Web sources describe entities in some structured format and therefore, finding ways to get them into useful entity knowledge is advantageous. We propose an approach that processes entity centric textual knowledge sources to learn entity embeddings and in turn avoids the need for a traditional knowledge graph. We first extract triples into the new representation format that does not use traditional complex triple extraction methods defined by pre-determined relationship labels. Then we learn entity embeddings through this new type of triples. We show that the embeddings learned from our approach are: (i) high quality and comparable to a known knowledge graph-based embeddings and can be used to improve them further, (ii) better than a contextual language model-based entity embeddings, and (iii) easy to compute and versatile in domain-specific applications where a knowledge graph is not readily available

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A Real-Time Whole Page Personalization Framework for E-Commerce

Dec 08, 2020
Aditya Mantha, Anirudha Sundaresan, Shashank Kedia, Yokila Arora, Shubham Gupta, Gaoyang Wang, Praveenkumar Kanumala, Stephen Guo, Kannan Achan

E-commerce platforms consistently aim to provide personalized recommendations to drive user engagement, enhance overall user experience, and improve business metrics. Most e-commerce platforms contain multiple carousels on their homepage, each attempting to capture different facets of the shopping experience. Given varied user preferences, optimizing the placement of these carousels is critical for improved user satisfaction. Furthermore, items within a carousel may change dynamically based on sequential user actions, thus necessitating online ranking of carousels. In this work, we present a scalable end-to-end production system to optimally rank item-carousels in real-time on the Walmart online grocery homepage. The proposed system utilizes a novel model that captures the user's affinity for different carousels and their likelihood to interact with previously unseen items. Our system is flexible in design and is easily extendable to settings where page components need to be ranked. We provide the system architecture consisting of a model development phase and an online inference framework. To ensure low-latency, various optimizations across these stages are implemented. We conducted extensive online evaluations to benchmark against the prior experience. In production, our system resulted in an improvement in item discovery, an increase in online engagement, and a significant lift on add-to-carts (ATCs) per visitor on the homepage.

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