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Assessing Human Interaction in Virtual Reality With Continually Learning Prediction Agents Based on Reinforcement Learning Algorithms: A Pilot Study

Dec 14, 2021
Dylan J. A. Brenneis, Adam S. Parker, Michael Bradley Johanson, Andrew Butcher, Elnaz Davoodi, Leslie Acker, Matthew M. Botvinick, Joseph Modayil, Adam White, Patrick M. Pilarski

Artificial intelligence systems increasingly involve continual learning to enable flexibility in general situations that are not encountered during system training. Human interaction with autonomous systems is broadly studied, but research has hitherto under-explored interactions that occur while the system is actively learning, and can noticeably change its behaviour in minutes. In this pilot study, we investigate how the interaction between a human and a continually learning prediction agent develops as the agent develops competency. Additionally, we compare two different agent architectures to assess how representational choices in agent design affect the human-agent interaction. We develop a virtual reality environment and a time-based prediction task wherein learned predictions from a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm augment human predictions. We assess how a participant's performance and behaviour in this task differs across agent types, using both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Our findings suggest that human trust of the system may be influenced by early interactions with the agent, and that trust in turn affects strategic behaviour, but limitations of the pilot study rule out any conclusive statement. We identify trust as a key feature of interaction to focus on when considering RL-based technologies, and make several recommendations for modification to this study in preparation for a larger-scale investigation. A video summary of this paper can be found at .

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Multi-Domain Active Learning: A Comparative Study

Jun 25, 2021
Rui He, Shan He, Ke Tang

Building classifiers on multiple domains is a practical problem in the real life. Instead of building classifiers one by one, multi-domain learning (MDL) simultaneously builds classifiers on multiple domains. MDL utilizes the information shared among the domains to improve the performance. As a supervised learning problem, the labeling effort is still high in MDL problems. Usually, this high labeling cost issue could be relieved by using active learning. Thus, it is natural to utilize active learning to reduce the labeling effort in MDL, and we refer this setting as multi-domain active learning (MDAL). However, there are only few works which are built on this setting. And when the researches have to face this problem, there is no off-the-shelf solutions. Under this circumstance, combining the current multi-domain learning models and single-domain active learning strategies might be a preliminary solution for MDAL problem. To find out the potential of this preliminary solution, a comparative study over 5 models and 4 selection strategies is made in this paper. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work provides the formal definition of MDAL. Besides, this is the first comparative work for MDAL problem. From the results, the Multinomial Adversarial Networks (MAN) model with a simple best vs second best (BvSB) uncertainty strategy shows its superiority in most cases. We take this combination as our off-the-shelf recommendation for the MDAL problem.

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Can You Trust Your Trust Measure?

Apr 23, 2021
Meia Chita-Tegmark, Theresa Law, Nicholas Rabb, Matthias Scheutz

Trust in human-robot interactions (HRI) is measured in two main ways: through subjective questionnaires and through behavioral tasks. To optimize measurements of trust through questionnaires, the field of HRI faces two challenges: the development of standardized measures that apply to a variety of robots with different capabilities, and the exploration of social and relational dimensions of trust in robots (e.g., benevolence). In this paper we look at how different trust questionnaires fare given these challenges that pull in different directions (being general vs. being exploratory) by studying whether people think the items in these questionnaires are applicable to different kinds of robots and interactions. In Study 1 we show that after being presented with a robot (non-humanoid) and an interaction scenario (fire evacuation), participants rated multiple questionnaire items such as "This robot is principled" as "Non-applicable to robots in general" or "Non-applicable to this robot". In Study 2 we show that the frequency of these ratings change (indeed, even for items rated as N/A to robots in general) when a new scenario is presented (game playing with a humanoid robot). Finally, while overall trust scores remained robust to N/A ratings, our results revealed potential fallacies in the way these scores are commonly interpreted. We conclude with recommendations for the development, use and results-reporting of trust questionnaires for future studies, as well as theoretical implications for the field of HRI.

* In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI '21), March 8-11, 2021, Boulder, CO, USA ACM, New York, NY, USA 
* 9 pages 

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Maximizing Marginal Fairness for Dynamic Learning to Rank

Feb 18, 2021
Tao Yang, Qingyao Ai

Rankings, especially those in search and recommendation systems, often determine how people access information and how information is exposed to people. Therefore, how to balance the relevance and fairness of information exposure is considered as one of the key problems for modern IR systems. As conventional ranking frameworks that myopically sorts documents with their relevance will inevitably introduce unfair result exposure, recent studies on ranking fairness mostly focus on dynamic ranking paradigms where result rankings can be adapted in real-time to support fairness in groups (i.e., races, genders, etc.). Existing studies on fairness in dynamic learning to rank, however, often achieve the overall fairness of document exposure in ranked lists by significantly sacrificing the performance of result relevance and fairness on the top results. To address this problem, we propose a fair and unbiased ranking method named Maximal Marginal Fairness (MMF). The algorithm integrates unbiased estimators for both relevance and merit-based fairness while providing an explicit controller that balances the selection of documents to maximize the marginal relevance and fairness in top-k results. Theoretical and empirical analysis shows that, with small compromises on long list fairness, our method achieves superior efficiency and effectiveness comparing to the state-of-the-art algorithms in both relevance and fairness for top-k rankings.

* 10 pages, 7 figures 

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A Provably Efficient Algorithm for Linear Markov Decision Process with Low Switching Cost

Jan 02, 2021
Minbo Gao, Tianle Xie, Simon S. Du, Lin F. Yang

Many real-world applications, such as those in medical domains, recommendation systems, etc, can be formulated as large state space reinforcement learning problems with only a small budget of the number of policy changes, i.e., low switching cost. This paper focuses on the linear Markov Decision Process (MDP) recently studied in [Yang et al 2019, Jin et al 2020] where the linear function approximation is used for generalization on the large state space. We present the first algorithm for linear MDP with a low switching cost. Our algorithm achieves an $\widetilde{O}\left(\sqrt{d^3H^4K}\right)$ regret bound with a near-optimal $O\left(d H\log K\right)$ global switching cost where $d$ is the feature dimension, $H$ is the planning horizon and $K$ is the number of episodes the agent plays. Our regret bound matches the best existing polynomial algorithm by [Jin et al 2020] and our switching cost is exponentially smaller than theirs. When specialized to tabular MDP, our switching cost bound improves those in [Bai et al 2019, Zhang et al 20020]. We complement our positive result with an $\Omega\left(dH/\log d\right)$ global switching cost lower bound for any no-regret algorithm.

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New approach to MPI program execution time prediction

Jul 30, 2020
A. Chupakhin, A. Kolosov, R. Smeliansky, V. Antonenko, G. Ishelev

The problem of MPI programs execution time prediction on a certain set of computer installations is considered. This problem emerges with orchestration and provisioning a virtual infrastructure in a cloud computing environment over a heterogeneous network of computer installations: supercomputers or clusters of servers (e.g. mini data centers). One of the key criteria for the effectiveness of the cloud computing environment is the time staying by the program inside the environment. This time consists of the waiting time in the queue and the execution time on the selected physical computer installation, to which the computational resource of the virtual infrastructure is dynamically mapped. One of the components of this problem is the estimation of the MPI programs execution time on a certain set of computer installations. This is necessary to determine a proper choice of order and place for program execution. The article proposes two new approaches to the program execution time prediction problem. The first one is based on computer installations grouping based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. The second one is based on vector representations of computer installations and MPI programs, so-called embeddings. The embedding technique is actively used in recommendation systems, such as for goods (Amazon), for articles (, for videos (YouTube, Netflix). The article shows how the embeddings technique helps to predict the execution time of a MPI program on a certain set of computer installations.

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What Emotions Make One or Five Stars? Understanding Ratings of Online Product Reviews by Sentiment Analysis and XAI

Feb 29, 2020
Chaehan So

When people buy products online, they primarily base their decisions on the recommendations of others given in online reviews. The current work analyzed these online reviews by sentiment analysis and used the extracted sentiments as features to predict the product ratings by several machine learning algorithms. These predictions were disentangled by various meth-ods of explainable AI (XAI) to understand whether the model showed any bias during prediction. Study 1 benchmarked these algorithms (knn, support vector machines, random forests, gradient boosting machines, XGBoost) and identified random forests and XGBoost as best algorithms for predicting the product ratings. In Study 2, the analysis of global feature importance identified the sentiment joy and the emotional valence negative as most predictive features. Two XAI visualization methods, local feature attributions and partial dependency plots, revealed several incorrect prediction mechanisms on the instance-level. Performing the benchmarking as classification, Study 3 identified a high no-information rate of 64.4% that indicated high class imbalance as underlying reason for the identified problems. In conclusion, good performance by machine learning algorithms must be taken with caution because the dataset, as encountered in this work, could be biased towards certain predictions. This work demonstrates how XAI methods reveal such prediction bias.

* To be published in: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in HCI, AI-HCI, Held as Part of HCI International 2020, Kopenhagen, Denmark, July 19-24, Springer 

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Canada Protocol: an ethical checklist for the use of Artificial Intelligence in Suicide Prevention and Mental Health

Jul 17, 2019
Carl-Maria Mörch, Abhishek Gupta, Brian L. Mishara

Introduction: To improve current public health strategies in suicide prevention and mental health, governments, researchers and private companies increasingly use information and communication technologies, and more specifically Artificial Intelligence and Big Data. These technologies are promising but raise ethical challenges rarely covered by current legal systems. It is essential to better identify, and prevent potential ethical risks. Objectives: The Canada Protocol - MHSP is a tool to guide and support professionals, users, and researchers using AI in mental health and suicide prevention. Methods: A checklist was constructed based upon ten international reports on AI and ethics and two guides on mental health and new technologies. 329 recommendations were identified, of which 43 were considered as applicable to Mental Health and AI. The checklist was validated, using a two round Delphi Consultation. Results: 16 experts participated in the first round of the Delphi Consultation and 8 participated in the second round. Of the original 43 items, 38 were retained. They concern five categories: "Description of the Autonomous Intelligent System" (n=8), "Privacy and Transparency" (n=8), "Security" (n=6), "Health-Related Risks" (n=8), "Biases" (n=8). The checklist was considered relevant by most users, and could need versions tailored to each category of target users.

* Submitted to CRISIS (The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention), Hogrefe 

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Uncovering Download Fraud Activities in Mobile App Markets

Jul 05, 2019
Yingtong Dou, Weijian Li, Zhirong Liu, Zhenhua Dong, Jiebo Luo, Philip S. Yu

Download fraud is a prevalent threat in mobile App markets, where fraudsters manipulate the number of downloads of Apps via various cheating approaches. Purchased fake downloads can mislead recommendation and search algorithms and further lead to bad user experience in App markets. In this paper, we investigate download fraud problem based on a company's App Market, which is one of the most popular Android App markets. We release a honeypot App on the App Market and purchase fake downloads from fraudster agents to track fraud activities in the wild. Based on our interaction with the fraudsters, we categorize download fraud activities into three types according to their intentions: boosting front end downloads, optimizing App search ranking, and enhancing user acquisition&retention rate. For the download fraud aimed at optimizing App search ranking, we select, evaluate, and validate several features in identifying fake downloads based on billions of download data. To get a comprehensive understanding of download fraud, we further gather stances of App marketers, fraudster agencies, and market operators on download fraud. The followed analysis and suggestions shed light on the ways to mitigate download fraud in App markets and other social platforms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that investigates the download fraud problem in mobile App markets.

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GraphGAN: Graph Representation Learning with Generative Adversarial Nets

Nov 22, 2017
Hongwei Wang, Jia Wang, Jialin Wang, Miao Zhao, Weinan Zhang, Fuzheng Zhang, Xing Xie, Minyi Guo

The goal of graph representation learning is to embed each vertex in a graph into a low-dimensional vector space. Existing graph representation learning methods can be classified into two categories: generative models that learn the underlying connectivity distribution in the graph, and discriminative models that predict the probability of edge existence between a pair of vertices. In this paper, we propose GraphGAN, an innovative graph representation learning framework unifying above two classes of methods, in which the generative model and discriminative model play a game-theoretical minimax game. Specifically, for a given vertex, the generative model tries to fit its underlying true connectivity distribution over all other vertices and produces "fake" samples to fool the discriminative model, while the discriminative model tries to detect whether the sampled vertex is from ground truth or generated by the generative model. With the competition between these two models, both of them can alternately and iteratively boost their performance. Moreover, when considering the implementation of generative model, we propose a novel graph softmax to overcome the limitations of traditional softmax function, which can be proven satisfying desirable properties of normalization, graph structure awareness, and computational efficiency. Through extensive experiments on real-world datasets, we demonstrate that GraphGAN achieves substantial gains in a variety of applications, including link prediction, node classification, and recommendation, over state-of-the-art baselines.

* The 32nd AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2018), 8 pages 

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