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Diagnostic Questions:The NeurIPS 2020 Education Challenge

Aug 03, 2020
Zichao Wang, Angus Lamb, Evgeny Saveliev, Pashmina Cameron, Yordan Zaykov, José Miguel Hernández-Lobato, Richard E. Turner, Richard G. Baraniuk, Craig Barton, Simon Peyton Jones, Simon Woodhead, Cheng Zhang

Digital technologies are becoming increasingly prevalent in education, enabling personalized, high quality education resources to be accessible by students across the world. Importantly, among these resources are diagnostic questions: the answers that the students give to these questions reveal key information about the specific nature of misconceptions that the students may hold. Analyzing the massive quantities of data stemming from students' interactions with these diagnostic questions can help us more accurately understand the students' learning status and thus allow us to automate learning curriculum recommendations. In this competition, participants will focus on the students' answer records to these multiple-choice diagnostic questions, with the aim of 1) accurately predicting which answers the students provide; 2) accurately predicting which questions have high quality; and 3) determining a personalized sequence of questions for each student that best predicts the student's answers. These tasks closely mimic the goals of a real-world educational platform and are highly representative of the educational challenges faced today. We provide over 20 million examples of students' answers to mathematics questions from Eedi, a leading educational platform which thousands of students interact with daily around the globe. Participants to this competition have a chance to make a lasting, real-world impact on the quality of personalized education for millions of students across the world.

* 28 pages, 6 figures, NeurIPS 2020 Competition Track 

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CNNTOP: a CNN-based Trajectory Owner Prediction Method

Jan 05, 2020
Xucheng Luo, Shengyang Li, Yuxiang Peng

Trajectory owner prediction is the basis for many applications such as personalized recommendation, urban planning. Although much effort has been put on this topic, the results archived are still not good enough. Existing methods mainly employ RNNs to model trajectories semantically due to the inherent sequential attribute of trajectories. However, these approaches are weak at Point of Interest (POI) representation learning and trajectory feature detection. Thus, the performance of existing solutions is far from the requirements of practical applications. In this paper, we propose a novel CNN-based Trajectory Owner Prediction (CNNTOP) method. Firstly, we connect all POI according to trajectories from all users. The result is a connected graph that can be used to generate more informative POI sequences than other approaches. Secondly, we employ the Node2Vec algorithm to encode each POI into a low-dimensional real value vector. Then, we transform each trajectory into a fixed-dimensional matrix, which is similar to an image. Finally, a CNN is designed to detect features and predict the owner of a given trajectory. The CNN can extract informative features from the matrix representations of trajectories by convolutional operations, Batch normalization, and $K$-max pooling operations. Extensive experiments on real datasets demonstrate that CNNTOP substantially outperforms existing solutions in terms of macro-Precision, macro-Recall, macro-F1, and accuracy.

* 9pages, 11figures 

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Machine Learning and Visualization in Clinical Decision Support: Current State and Future Directions

Jun 06, 2019
Gal Levy-Fix, Gilad J. Kuperman, Noémie Elhadad

Deep learning, an area of machine learning, is set to revolutionize patient care. But it is not yet part of standard of care, especially when it comes to individual patient care. In fact, it is unclear to what extent data-driven techniques are being used to support clinical decision making (CDS). Heretofore, there has not been a review of ways in which research in machine learning and other types of data-driven techniques can contribute effectively to clinical care and the types of support they can bring to clinicians. In this paper, we consider ways in which two data driven domains - machine learning and data visualizations - can contribute to the next generation of clinical decision support systems. We review the literature regarding the ways heuristic knowledge, machine learning, and visualization are - and can be - applied to three types of CDS. There has been substantial research into the use of predictive modeling for alerts, however current CDS systems are not utilizing these methods. Approaches that leverage interactive visualizations and machine-learning inferences to organize and review patient data are gaining popularity but are still at the prototype stage and are not yet in use. CDS systems that could benefit from prescriptive machine learning (e.g., treatment recommendations for specific patients) have not yet been developed. We discuss potential reasons for the lack of deployment of data-driven methods in CDS and directions for future research.

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FPGA-based Accelerators of Deep Learning Networks for Learning and Classification: A Review

Jan 01, 2019
Ahmad Shawahna, Sadiq M. Sait, Aiman El-Maleh

Due to recent advances in digital technologies, and availability of credible data, an area of artificial intelligence, deep learning, has emerged, and has demonstrated its ability and effectiveness in solving complex learning problems not possible before. In particular, convolution neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in image detection and recognition applications. However, they require intensive CPU operations and memory bandwidth that make general CPUs fail to achieve desired performance levels. Consequently, hardware accelerators that use application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and graphic processing units (GPUs) have been employed to improve the throughput of CNNs. More precisely, FPGAs have been recently adopted for accelerating the implementation of deep learning networks due to their ability to maximize parallelism as well as due to their energy efficiency. In this paper, we review recent existing techniques for accelerating deep learning networks on FPGAs. We highlight the key features employed by the various techniques for improving the acceleration performance. In addition, we provide recommendations for enhancing the utilization of FPGAs for CNNs acceleration. The techniques investigated in this paper represent the recent trends in FPGA-based accelerators of deep learning networks. Thus, this review is expected to direct the future advances on efficient hardware accelerators and to be useful for deep learning researchers.

* This article has been accepted for publication in IEEE Access (December, 2018) 

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Decision support from financial disclosures with deep neural networks and transfer learning

Oct 11, 2017
Mathias Kraus, Stefan Feuerriegel

Company disclosures greatly aid in the process of financial decision-making; therefore, they are consulted by financial investors and automated traders before exercising ownership in stocks. While humans are usually able to correctly interpret the content, the same is rarely true of computerized decision support systems, which struggle with the complexity and ambiguity of natural language. A possible remedy is represented by deep learning, which overcomes several shortcomings of traditional methods of text mining. For instance, recurrent neural networks, such as long short-term memories, employ hierarchical structures, together with a large number of hidden layers, to automatically extract features from ordered sequences of words and capture highly non-linear relationships such as context-dependent meanings. However, deep learning has only recently started to receive traction, possibly because its performance is largely untested. Hence, this paper studies the use of deep neural networks for financial decision support. We additionally experiment with transfer learning, in which we pre-train the network on a different corpus with a length of 139.1 million words. Our results reveal a higher directional accuracy as compared to traditional machine learning when predicting stock price movements in response to financial disclosures. Our work thereby helps to highlight the business value of deep learning and provides recommendations to practitioners and executives.

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Noise-Tolerant Life-Long Matrix Completion via Adaptive Sampling

Dec 01, 2016
Maria-Florina Balcan, Hongyang Zhang

We study the problem of recovering an incomplete $m\times n$ matrix of rank $r$ with columns arriving online over time. This is known as the problem of life-long matrix completion, and is widely applied to recommendation system, computer vision, system identification, etc. The challenge is to design provable algorithms tolerant to a large amount of noises, with small sample complexity. In this work, we give algorithms achieving strong guarantee under two realistic noise models. In bounded deterministic noise, an adversary can add any bounded yet unstructured noise to each column. For this problem, we present an algorithm that returns a matrix of a small error, with sample complexity almost as small as the best prior results in the noiseless case. For sparse random noise, where the corrupted columns are sparse and drawn randomly, we give an algorithm that exactly recovers an $\mu_0$-incoherent matrix by probability at least $1-\delta$ with sample complexity as small as $O\left(\mu_0rn\log (r/\delta)\right)$. This result advances the state-of-the-art work and matches the lower bound in a worst case. We also study the scenario where the hidden matrix lies on a mixture of subspaces and show that the sample complexity can be even smaller. Our proposed algorithms perform well experimentally in both synthetic and real-world datasets.

* 24 pages, 5 figures in NIPS 2016 

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Fast and Simple Optimization for Poisson Likelihood Models

Aug 03, 2016
Niao He, Zaid Harchaoui, Yichen Wang, Le Song

Poisson likelihood models have been prevalently used in imaging, social networks, and time series analysis. We propose fast, simple, theoretically-grounded, and versatile, optimization algorithms for Poisson likelihood modeling. The Poisson log-likelihood is concave but not Lipschitz-continuous. Since almost all gradient-based optimization algorithms rely on Lipschitz-continuity, optimizing Poisson likelihood models with a guarantee of convergence can be challenging, especially for large-scale problems. We present a new perspective allowing to efficiently optimize a wide range of penalized Poisson likelihood objectives. We show that an appropriate saddle point reformulation enjoys a favorable geometry and a smooth structure. Therefore, we can design a new gradient-based optimization algorithm with $O(1/t)$ convergence rate, in contrast to the usual $O(1/\sqrt{t})$ rate of non-smooth minimization alternatives. Furthermore, in order to tackle problems with large samples, we also develop a randomized block-decomposition variant that enjoys the same convergence rate yet more efficient iteration cost. Experimental results on several point process applications including social network estimation and temporal recommendation show that the proposed algorithm and its randomized block variant outperform existing methods both on synthetic and real-world datasets.

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A preliminary survey on optimized multiobjective metaheuristic methods for data clustering using evolutionary approaches

Dec 09, 2013
Ramachandra Rao Kurada, Dr. K Karteeka Pavan, Dr. AV Dattareya Rao

The present survey provides the state-of-the-art of research, copiously devoted to Evolutionary Approach (EAs) for clustering exemplified with a diversity of evolutionary computations. The Survey provides a nomenclature that highlights some aspects that are very important in the context of evolutionary data clustering. The paper missions the clustering trade-offs branched out with wide-ranging Multi Objective Evolutionary Approaches (MOEAs) methods. Finally, this study addresses the potential challenges of MOEA design and data clustering, along with conclusions and recommendations for novice and researchers by positioning most promising paths of future research. MOEAs have substantial success across a variety of MOP applications, from pedagogical multifunction optimization to real-world engineering design. The survey paper noticeably organizes the developments witnessed in the past three decades for EAs based metaheuristics to solve multiobjective optimization problems (MOP) and to derive significant progression in ruling high quality elucidations in a single run. Data clustering is an exigent task, whose intricacy is caused by a lack of unique and precise definition of a cluster. The discrete optimization problem uses the cluster space to derive a solution for Multiobjective data clustering. Discovery of a majority or all of the clusters (of illogical shapes) present in the data is a long-standing goal of unsupervised predictive learning problems or exploratory pattern analysis.

* International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 5,No 5, Oct 2013, ISSN:0975-3826 
* 21 Pages 

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Coordinated Attacks against Contextual Bandits: Fundamental Limits and Defense Mechanisms

Jan 30, 2022
Jeongyeol Kwon, Yonathan Efroni, Constantine Caramanis, Shie Mannor

Motivated by online recommendation systems, we propose the problem of finding the optimal policy in multitask contextual bandits when a small fraction $\alpha < 1/2$ of tasks (users) are arbitrary and adversarial. The remaining fraction of good users share the same instance of contextual bandits with $S$ contexts and $A$ actions (items). Naturally, whether a user is good or adversarial is not known in advance. The goal is to robustly learn the policy that maximizes rewards for good users with as few user interactions as possible. Without adversarial users, established results in collaborative filtering show that $O(1/\epsilon^2)$ per-user interactions suffice to learn a good policy, precisely because information can be shared across users. This parallelization gain is fundamentally altered by the presence of adversarial users: unless there are super-polynomial number of users, we show a lower bound of $\tilde{\Omega}(\min(S,A) \cdot \alpha^2 / \epsilon^2)$ {\it per-user} interactions to learn an $\epsilon$-optimal policy for the good users. We then show we can achieve an $\tilde{O}(\min(S,A)\cdot \alpha/\epsilon^2)$ upper-bound, by employing efficient robust mean estimators for both uni-variate and high-dimensional random variables. We also show that this can be improved depending on the distributions of contexts.

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