Models are used in both the Software Engineering (SE) and the Artificial Intelligence (AI) communities. In the former case, models of software, which may specify the software system architecture on different levels of abstraction could be used in various stages of the Software Development Life-Cycle (SDLC), from early conceptualization and design, to verification, implementation, testing and evolution. However, in the latter case, i.e., AI, models may provide smart capabilities, such as prediction and decision making support. For instance, in Machine Learning (ML), which is the most popular sub-discipline of AI at the present time, mathematical models may learn useful patterns in the observed data instances and can become capable of making better predictions or recommendations in the future. The goal of this work is to create synergy by bringing models in the said communities together and proposing a holistic approach. We illustrate how software models can become capable of producing or dealing with data analytics and ML models. The main focus is on the Internet of Things (IoT) and smart Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) use cases, where both ML and model-driven (model-based) SE play a key role. In particular, we implement the proposed approach in an open source prototype and validate it using two use cases from the IoT/CPS domain.
Remarkable success of modern image-based AI methods and the resulting interest in their applications in critical decision-making processes has led to a surge in efforts to make such intelligent systems transparent and explainable. The need for explainable AI does not stem only from ethical and moral grounds but also from stricter legislation around the world mandating clear and justifiable explanations of any decision taken or assisted by AI. Especially in the medical context where Computer-Aided Diagnosis can have a direct influence on the treatment and well-being of patients, transparency is of utmost importance for safe transition from lab research to real world clinical practice. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of current state-of-the-art in explaining and interpreting Deep Learning based algorithms in applications of medical research and diagnosis of diseases. We discuss early achievements in development of explainable AI for validation of known disease criteria, exploration of new potential biomarkers, as well as methods for the subsequent correction of AI models. Various explanation methods like visual, textual, post-hoc, ante-hoc, local and global have been thoroughly and critically analyzed. Subsequently, we also highlight some of the remaining challenges that stand in the way of practical applications of AI as a clinical decision support tool and provide recommendations for the direction of future research.
Search and recommendation systems, such as search engines, recruiting tools, online marketplaces, news, and social media, output ranked lists of content, products, and sometimes, people. Credit ratings, standardized tests, risk assessments output only a score, but are also used implicitly for ranking. Bias in such ranking systems, especially among the top ranks, can worsen social and economic inequalities, polarize opinions, and reinforce stereotypes. On the other hand, a bias correction for minority groups can cause more harm if perceived as favoring group-fair outcomes over meritocracy. In this paper, we study a trade-off between individual fairness and group fairness in ranking. We define individual fairness based on how close the predicted rank of each item is to its true rank, and prove a lower bound on the trade-off achievable for simultaneous individual and group fairness in ranking. We give a fair ranking algorithm that takes any given ranking and outputs another ranking with simultaneous individual and group fairness guarantees comparable to the lower bound we prove. Our algorithm can be used to both pre-process training data as well as post-process the output of existing ranking algorithms. Our experimental results show that our algorithm performs better than the state-of-the-art fair learning to rank and fair post-processing baselines.
The expressive power of Bayesian kernel-based methods has led them to become an important tool across many different facets of artificial intelligence, and useful to a plethora of modern application domains, providing both power and interpretability via uncertainty analysis. This article introduces and discusses two methods which straddle the areas of probabilistic Bayesian schemes and kernel methods for regression: Gaussian Processes and Relevance Vector Machines. Our focus is on developing a common framework with which to view these methods, via intermediate methods a probabilistic version of the well-known kernel ridge regression, and drawing connections among them, via dual formulations, and discussion of their application in the context of major tasks: regression, smoothing, interpolation, and filtering. Overall, we provide understanding of the mathematical concepts behind these models, and we summarize and discuss in depth different interpretations and highlight the relationship to other methods, such as linear kernel smoothers, Kalman filtering and Fourier approximations. Throughout, we provide numerous figures to promote understanding, and we make numerous recommendations to practitioners. Benefits and drawbacks of the different techniques are highlighted. To our knowledge, this is the most in-depth study of its kind to date focused on these two methods, and will be relevant to theoretical understanding and practitioners throughout the domains of data-science, signal processing, machine learning, and artificial intelligence in general.
Responses in task-oriented dialogue systems often realize multiple propositions whose ultimate form depends on the use of sentence planning and discourse structuring operations. For example a recommendation may consist of an explicitly evaluative utterance e.g. Chanpen Thai is the best option, along with content related by the justification discourse relation, e.g. It has great food and service, that combines multiple propositions into a single phrase. While neural generation methods integrate sentence planning and surface realization in one end-to-end learning framework, previous work has not shown that neural generators can: (1) perform common sentence planning and discourse structuring operations; (2) make decisions as to whether to realize content in a single sentence or over multiple sentences; (3) generalize sentence planning and discourse relation operations beyond what was seen in training. We systematically create large training corpora that exhibit particular sentence planning operations and then test neural models to see what they learn. We compare models without explicit latent variables for sentence planning with ones that provide explicit supervision during training. We show that only the models with additional supervision can reproduce sentence planing and discourse operations and generalize to situations unseen in training.
Data-intensive science communities are progressively adopting FAIR practices that enhance the visibility of scientific breakthroughs and enable reuse. At the core of this movement, research objects contain and describe scientific information and resources in a way compliant with the FAIR principles and sustain the development of key infrastructure and tools. This paper provides an account of the challenges, experiences and solutions involved in the adoption of FAIR around research objects over several Earth Science disciplines. During this journey, our work has been comprehensive, with outcomes including: an extended research object model adapted to the needs of earth scientists; the provisioning of digital object identifiers (DOI) to enable persistent identification and to give due credit to authors; the generation of content-based, semantically rich, research object metadata through natural language processing, enhancing visibility and reuse through recommendation systems and third-party search engines; and various types of checklists that provide a compact representation of research object quality as a key enabler of scientific reuse. All these results have been integrated in ROHub, a platform that provides research object management functionality to a wealth of applications and interfaces across different scientific communities. To monitor and quantify the community uptake of research objects, we have defined indicators and obtained measures via ROHub that are also discussed herein.
For statistical learning, categorical variables in a table are usually considered as discrete entities and encoded separately to feature vectors, e.g., with one-hot encoding. "Dirty" non-curated data gives rise to categorical variables with a very high cardinality but redundancy: several categories reflect the same entity. In databases, this issue is typically solved with a deduplication step. We show that a simple approach that exposes the redundancy to the learning algorithm brings significant gains. We study a generalization of one-hot encoding, similarity encoding, that builds feature vectors from similarities across categories. We perform a thorough empirical validation on non-curated tables, a problem seldom studied in machine learning. Results on seven real-world datasets show that similarity encoding brings significant gains in prediction in comparison with known encoding methods for categories or strings, notably one-hot encoding and bag of character n-grams. We draw practical recommendations for encoding dirty categories: 3-gram similarity appears to be a good choice to capture morphological resemblance. For very high-cardinality, dimensionality reduction significantly reduces the computational cost with little loss in performance: random projections or choosing a subset of prototype categories still outperforms classic encoding approaches.
This paper provides a unified account of two schools of thinking in information retrieval modelling: the generative retrieval focusing on predicting relevant documents given a query, and the discriminative retrieval focusing on predicting relevancy given a query-document pair. We propose a game theoretical minimax game to iteratively optimise both models. On one hand, the discriminative model, aiming to mine signals from labelled and unlabelled data, provides guidance to train the generative model towards fitting the underlying relevance distribution over documents given the query. On the other hand, the generative model, acting as an attacker to the current discriminative model, generates difficult examples for the discriminative model in an adversarial way by minimising its discrimination objective. With the competition between these two models, we show that the unified framework takes advantage of both schools of thinking: (i) the generative model learns to fit the relevance distribution over documents via the signals from the discriminative model, and (ii) the discriminative model is able to exploit the unlabelled data selected by the generative model to achieve a better estimation for document ranking. Our experimental results have demonstrated significant performance gains as much as 23.96% on [email protected] and 15.50% on MAP over strong baselines in a variety of applications including web search, item recommendation, and question answering.
Bipartite data is common in data engineering and brings unique challenges, particularly when it comes to clustering tasks that impose on strong structural assumptions. This work presents an unsupervised method for assessing similarity in bipartite data. Similar to some co-clustering methods, the method is based on regular equivalence in graphs. The algorithm uses spectral properties of a bipartite adjacency matrix to estimate similarity in both dimensions. The method is reflexive in that similarity in one dimension is used to inform similarity in the other. Reflexive regular equivalence can also use the structure of transitivities -- in a network sense -- the contribution of which is controlled by the algorithm's only free-parameter, $\alpha$. The method is completely unsupervised and can be used to validate assumptions of co-similarity, which are required but often untested, in co-clustering analyses. Three variants of the method with different normalizations are tested on synthetic data. The method is found to be robust to noise and well-suited to asymmetric co-similar structure, making it particularly informative for cluster analysis and recommendation in bipartite data of unknown structure. In experiments, the convergence and speed of the algorithm are found to be stable for different levels of noise. Real-world data from a network of malaria genes are analyzed, where the similarity produced by the reflexive method is shown to out-perform other measures' ability to correctly classify genes.