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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Learning Semantic Relatedness From Human Feedback Using Metric Learning

May 24, 2017
Thomas Niebler, Martin Becker, Christian Pölitz, Andreas Hotho

Assessing the degree of semantic relatedness between words is an important task with a variety of semantic applications, such as ontology learning for the Semantic Web, semantic search or query expansion. To accomplish this in an automated fashion, many relatedness measures have been proposed. However, most of these metrics only encode information contained in the underlying corpus and thus do not directly model human intuition. To solve this, we propose to utilize a metric learning approach to improve existing semantic relatedness measures by learning from additional information, such as explicit human feedback. For this, we argue to use word embeddings instead of traditional high-dimensional vector representations in order to leverage their semantic density and to reduce computational cost. We rigorously test our approach on several domains including tagging data as well as publicly available embeddings based on Wikipedia texts and navigation. Human feedback about semantic relatedness for learning and evaluation is extracted from publicly available datasets such as MEN or WS-353. We find that our method can significantly improve semantic relatedness measures by learning from additional information, such as explicit human feedback. For tagging data, we are the first to generate and study embeddings. Our results are of special interest for ontology and recommendation engineers, but also for any other researchers and practitioners of Semantic Web techniques.

* Under review at ISWC 2017 

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Multiple Instance Learning: A Survey of Problem Characteristics and Applications

Dec 11, 2016
Marc-André Carbonneau, Veronika Cheplygina, Eric Granger, Ghyslain Gagnon

Multiple instance learning (MIL) is a form of weakly supervised learning where training instances are arranged in sets, called bags, and a label is provided for the entire bag. This formulation is gaining interest because it naturally fits various problems and allows to leverage weakly labeled data. Consequently, it has been used in diverse application fields such as computer vision and document classification. However, learning from bags raises important challenges that are unique to MIL. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the characteristics which define and differentiate the types of MIL problems. Until now, these problem characteristics have not been formally identified and described. As a result, the variations in performance of MIL algorithms from one data set to another are difficult to explain. In this paper, MIL problem characteristics are grouped into four broad categories: the composition of the bags, the types of data distribution, the ambiguity of instance labels, and the task to be performed. Methods specialized to address each category are reviewed. Then, the extent to which these characteristics manifest themselves in key MIL application areas are described. Finally, experiments are conducted to compare the performance of 16 state-of-the-art MIL methods on selected problem characteristics. This paper provides insight on how the problem characteristics affect MIL algorithms, recommendations for future benchmarking and promising avenues for research.


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$k\texttt{-experts}$ -- Online Policies and Fundamental Limits

Oct 15, 2021
Samrat Mukhopadhyay, Sourav Sahoo, Abhishek Sinha

This paper introduces and studies the $k\texttt{-experts}$ problem -- a generalization of the classic Prediction with Expert's Advice (i.e., the $\texttt{Experts}$) problem. Unlike the $\texttt{Experts}$ problem, where the learner chooses exactly one expert, in this problem, the learner selects a subset of $k$ experts from a pool of $N$ experts at each round. The reward obtained by the learner at any round depends on the rewards of the selected experts. The $k\texttt{-experts}$ problem arises in many practical settings, including online ad placements, personalized news recommendations, and paging. Our primary goal is to design an online learning policy having a small regret. In this pursuit, we propose $\texttt{SAGE}$ ($\textbf{Sa}$mpled Hed$\textbf{ge}$) - a framework for designing efficient online learning policies by leveraging statistical sampling techniques. We show that, for many related problems, $\texttt{SAGE}$ improves upon the state-of-the-art bounds for regret and computational complexity. Furthermore, going beyond the notion of regret, we characterize the mistake bounds achievable by online learning policies for a class of stable loss functions. We conclude the paper by establishing a tight regret lower bound for a variant of the $k\texttt{-experts}$ problem and carrying out experiments with standard datasets.


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ConTIG: Continuous Representation Learning on Temporal Interaction Graphs

Sep 27, 2021
Xu Yan, Xiaoliang Fan, Peizhen Yang, Zonghan Wu, Shirui Pan, Longbiao Chen, Yu Zang, Cheng Wang

Representation learning on temporal interaction graphs (TIG) is to model complex networks with the dynamic evolution of interactions arising in a broad spectrum of problems. Existing dynamic embedding methods on TIG discretely update node embeddings merely when an interaction occurs. They fail to capture the continuous dynamic evolution of embedding trajectories of nodes. In this paper, we propose a two-module framework named ConTIG, a continuous representation method that captures the continuous dynamic evolution of node embedding trajectories. With two essential modules, our model exploit three-fold factors in dynamic networks which include latest interaction, neighbor features and inherent characteristics. In the first update module, we employ a continuous inference block to learn the nodes' state trajectories by learning from time-adjacent interaction patterns between node pairs using ordinary differential equations. In the second transform module, we introduce a self-attention mechanism to predict future node embeddings by aggregating historical temporal interaction information. Experiments results demonstrate the superiority of ConTIG on temporal link prediction, temporal node recommendation and dynamic node classification tasks compared with a range of state-of-the-art baselines, especially for long-interval interactions prediction.

* 12 pages; 6 figures 

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MOOCRep: A Unified Pre-trained Embedding of MOOC Entities

Jul 12, 2021
Shalini Pandey, Jaideep Srivastava

Many machine learning models have been built to tackle information overload issues on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) platforms. These models rely on learning powerful representations of MOOC entities. However, they suffer from the problem of scarce expert label data. To overcome this problem, we propose to learn pre-trained representations of MOOC entities using abundant unlabeled data from the structure of MOOCs which can directly be applied to the downstream tasks. While existing pre-training methods have been successful in NLP areas as they learn powerful textual representation, their models do not leverage the richer information about MOOC entities. This richer information includes the graph relationship between the lectures, concepts, and courses along with the domain knowledge about the complexity of a concept. We develop MOOCRep, a novel method based on Transformer language model trained with two pre-training objectives : 1) graph-based objective to capture the powerful signal of entities and relations that exist in the graph, and 2) domain-oriented objective to effectively incorporate the complexity level of concepts. Our experiments reveal that MOOCRep's embeddings outperform state-of-the-art representation learning methods on two tasks important for education community, concept pre-requisite prediction and lecture recommendation.


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Random Walks: A Review of Algorithms and Applications

Aug 09, 2020
Feng Xia, Jiaying Liu, Hansong Nie, Yonghao Fu, Liangtian Wan, Xiangjie Kong

A random walk is known as a random process which describes a path including a succession of random steps in the mathematical space. It has increasingly been popular in various disciplines such as mathematics and computer science. Furthermore, in quantum mechanics, quantum walks can be regarded as quantum analogues of classical random walks. Classical random walks and quantum walks can be used to calculate the proximity between nodes and extract the topology in the network. Various random walk related models can be applied in different fields, which is of great significance to downstream tasks such as link prediction, recommendation, computer vision, semi-supervised learning, and network embedding. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of classical random walks and quantum walks. We first review the knowledge of classical random walks and quantum walks, including basic concepts and some typical algorithms. We also compare the algorithms based on quantum walks and classical random walks from the perspective of time complexity. Then we introduce their applications in the field of computer science. Finally we discuss the open issues from the perspectives of efficiency, main-memory volume, and computing time of existing algorithms. This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring random walks and quantum walks together.

* IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, 4(2): 95-107, April 2020 
* 13 pages, 4 figures 

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TPG-DNN: A Method for User Intent Prediction Based on Total Probability Formula and GRU Loss with Multi-task Learning

Aug 05, 2020
Jingxing Jiang, Zhubin Wang, Fei Fang, Binqiang Zhao

The E-commerce platform has become the principal battleground where people search, browse and pay for whatever they want. Critical as is to improve the online shopping experience for customers and merchants, how to find a proper approach for user intent prediction are paid great attention in both industry and academia. In this paper, we propose a novel user intent prediction model, TPG-DNN, to complete the challenging task, which is based on adaptive gated recurrent unit (GRU) loss function with multi-task learning. We creatively use the GRU structure and total probability formula as the loss function to model the users' whole online purchase process. Besides, the multi-task weight adjustment mechanism can make the final loss function dynamically adjust the importance between different tasks through data variance. According to the test result of experiments conducted on Taobao daily and promotion data sets, the proposed model performs much better than existing click through rate (CTR) models. At present, the proposed user intent prediction model has been widely used for the coupon allocation, advertisement and recommendation on Taobao platform, which greatly improve the user experience and shopping efficiency, and benefit the gross merchandise volume (GMV) promotion as well.


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Node Classification on Graphs with Few-Shot Novel Labels via Meta Transformed Network Embedding

Jul 06, 2020
Lin Lan, Pinghui Wang, Xuefeng Du, Kaikai Song, Jing Tao, Xiaohong Guan

We study the problem of node classification on graphs with few-shot novel labels, which has two distinctive properties: (1) There are novel labels to emerge in the graph; (2) The novel labels have only a few representative nodes for training a classifier. The study of this problem is instructive and corresponds to many applications such as recommendations for newly formed groups with only a few users in online social networks. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel Meta Transformed Network Embedding framework (MetaTNE), which consists of three modules: (1) A \emph{structural module} provides each node a latent representation according to the graph structure. (2) A \emph{meta-learning module} captures the relationships between the graph structure and the node labels as prior knowledge in a meta-learning manner. Additionally, we introduce an \emph{embedding transformation function} that remedies the deficiency of the straightforward use of meta-learning. Inherently, the meta-learned prior knowledge can be used to facilitate the learning of few-shot novel labels. (3) An \emph{optimization module} employs a simple yet effective scheduling strategy to train the above two modules with a balance between graph structure learning and meta-learning. Experiments on four real-world datasets show that MetaTNE brings a huge improvement over the state-of-the-art methods.


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Seq2Seq and Joint Learning Based Unix Command Line Prediction System

Jun 20, 2020
Thoudam Doren Singh, Abdullah Faiz Ur Rahman Khilji, Divyansha, Apoorva Vikram Singh, Surmila Thokchom, Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

Despite being an open-source operating system pioneered in the early 90s, UNIX based platforms have not been able to garner an overwhelming reception from amateur end users. One of the rationales for under popularity of UNIX based systems is the steep learning curve corresponding to them due to extensive use of command line interface instead of usual interactive graphical user interface. In past years, the majority of insights used to explore the concern are eminently centered around the notion of utilizing chronic log history of the user to make the prediction of successive command. The approaches directed at anatomization of this notion are predominantly in accordance with Probabilistic inference models. The techniques employed in past, however, have not been competent enough to address the predicament as legitimately as anticipated. Instead of deploying usual mechanism of recommendation systems, we have employed a simple yet novel approach of Seq2seq model by leveraging continuous representations of self-curated exhaustive Knowledge Base (KB) to enhance the embedding employed in the model. This work describes an assistive, adaptive and dynamic way of enhancing UNIX command line prediction systems. Experimental methods state that our model has achieved accuracy surpassing mixture of other techniques and adaptive command line interface mechanism as acclaimed in the past.

* 9 pages, 1 Figure 

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From Federated Learning to Fog Learning: Towards Large-Scale Distributed Machine Learning in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Jun 07, 2020
Seyyedali Hosseinalipour, Christopher G. Brinton, Vaneet Aggarwal, Huaiyu Dai, Mung Chiang

Contemporary network architectures are pushing computing tasks from the cloud towards the network edge, leveraging the increased processing capabilities of edge devices to meet rising user demands. Of particular importance are machine learning (ML) tasks, which are becoming ubiquitous in networked applications ranging from content recommendation systems to intelligent vehicular communications. Federated learning has emerged recently as a technique for training ML models by leveraging processing capabilities across the nodes that collect the data. There are several challenges with employing federated learning at the edge, however, due to the significant heterogeneity in compute and communication capabilities that exist across devices. To address this, we advocate a new learning paradigm called {fog learning which will intelligently distribute ML model training across the fog, the continuum of nodes from edge devices to cloud servers. Fog learning is inherently a multi-stage learning framework that breaks down the aggregations of heterogeneous local models across several layers and can leverage data offloading within each layer. Its hybrid learning paradigm transforms star network topologies used for parameter transfers in federated learning to more distributed topologies. We also discuss several open research directions for fog learning.

* 7 pages, 4 figures 

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