Sentiment analysis is a research topic focused on analysing data to extract information related to the sentiment that it causes. Applications of sentiment analysis are wide, ranging from recommendation systems, and marketing to customer satisfaction. Recent approaches evaluate textual content using Machine Learning techniques that are trained over large corpora. However, as social media grown, other data types emerged in large quantities, such as images. Sentiment analysis in images has shown to be a valuable complement to textual data since it enables the inference of the underlying message polarity by creating context and connections. Multimodal sentiment analysis approaches intend to leverage information of both textual and image content to perform an evaluation. Despite recent advances, current solutions still flounder in combining both image and textual information to classify social media data, mainly due to subjectivity, inter-class homogeneity and fusion data differences. In this paper, we propose a method that combines both textual and image individual sentiment analysis into a final fused classification based on AutoML, that performs a random search to find the best model. Our method achieved state-of-the-art performance in the B-T4SA dataset, with 95.19% accuracy.
With the growing processing power of computing systems and the increasing availability of massive datasets, machine learning algorithms have led to major breakthroughs in many different areas. This development has influenced computer security, spawning a series of work on learning-based security systems, such as for malware detection, vulnerability discovery, and binary code analysis. Despite great potential, machine learning in security is prone to subtle pitfalls that undermine its performance and render learning-based systems potentially unsuitable for security tasks and practical deployment. In this paper, we look at this problem with critical eyes. First, we identify common pitfalls in the design, implementation, and evaluation of learning-based security systems. We conduct a longitudinal study of 30 papers from top-tier security conferences within the past 10 years, confirming that these pitfalls are widespread in the current security literature. In an empirical analysis, we further demonstrate how individual pitfalls can lead to unrealistic performance and interpretations, obstructing the understanding of the security problem at hand. As a remedy, we derive a list of actionable recommendations to support researchers and our community in avoiding pitfalls, promoting a sound design, development, evaluation, and deployment of learning-based systems for computer security.
Most recent machine learning research focuses on developing new classifiers for the sake of improving classification accuracy. With many well-performing state-of-the-art classifiers available, there is a growing need for understanding interpretability of a classifier necessitated by practical purposes such as to find the best diet recommendation for a diabetes patient. Inverse classification is a post modeling process to find changes in input features of samples to alter the initially predicted class. It is useful in many business applications to determine how to adjust a sample input data such that the classifier predicts it to be in a desired class. In real world applications, a budget on perturbations of samples corresponding to customers or patients is usually considered, and in this setting, the number of successfully perturbed samples is key to increase benefits. In this study, we propose a new framework to solve inverse classification that maximizes the number of perturbed samples subject to a per-feature-budget limits and favorable classification classes of the perturbed samples. We design algorithms to solve this optimization problem based on gradient methods, stochastic processes, Lagrangian relaxations, and the Gumbel trick. In experiments, we find that our algorithms based on stochastic processes exhibit an excellent performance in different budget settings and they scale well.
Solving optimization problems with unknown parameters often requires learning a predictive model to predict the values of the unknown parameters and then solving the problem using these values. Recent work has shown that including the optimization problem as a layer in the model training pipeline results in predictions of the unobserved parameters that lead to higher decision quality. Unfortunately, this process comes at a large computational cost because the optimization problem must be solved and differentiated through in each training iteration; furthermore, it may also sometimes fail to improve solution quality due to non-smoothness issues that arise when training through a complex optimization layer. To address these shortcomings, we learn a low-dimensional surrogate model of a large optimization problem by representing the feasible space in terms of meta-variables, each of which is a linear combination of the original variables. By training a low-dimensional surrogate model end-to-end, and jointly with the predictive model, we achieve: i) a large reduction in training and inference time; and ii) improved performance by focusing attention on the more important variables in the optimization and learning in a smoother space. Empirically, we demonstrate these improvements on a non-convex adversary modeling task, a submodular recommendation task and a convex portfolio optimization task.
We consider the use of decision trees for decision-making problems under the predict-then-optimize framework. That is, we would like to first use a decision tree to predict unknown input parameters of an optimization problem, and then make decisions by solving the optimization problem using the predicted parameters. A natural loss function in this framework is to measure the suboptimality of the decisions induced by the predicted input parameters, as opposed to measuring loss using input parameter prediction error. This natural loss function is known in the literature as the Smart Predict-then-Optimize (SPO) loss, and we propose a tractable methodology called SPO Trees (SPOTs) for training decision trees under this loss. SPOTs benefit from the interpretability of decision trees, providing an interpretable segmentation of contextual features into groups with distinct optimal solutions to the optimization problem of interest. We conduct several numerical experiments on synthetic and real data including the prediction of travel times for shortest path problems and predicting click probabilities for news article recommendation. We demonstrate on these datasets that SPOTs simultaneously provide higher quality decisions and significantly lower model complexity than other machine learning approaches (e.g., CART) trained to minimize prediction error.
As a key technique for enabling artificial intelligence, machine learning (ML) has been shown to be capable of solving complex problems without explicit programming. Motivated by its successful applications to many practical tasks like image recognition and recommendation systems, both industry and the research community have advocated the applications of ML in wireless communication. This paper comprehensively surveys the recent advances of the applications of ML in wireless communication, which are classified as: resource management in the MAC layer, networking and mobility management in the network layer, and localization in the application layer. The applications in resource management further include power control, spectrum management, backhaul management, cache management, beamformer design, and computation resource management, while ML-based networking focuses on the applications in base station (BS) clustering, BS switching control, user association, and routing. Each aspect is further categorized according to the adopted ML techniques. Additionally, given the extensiveness of the research area, challenges and unresolved issues are presented to facilitate future studies, where the topics of ML-based network slicing, infrastructure update to support ML-based paradigms, open data sets and platforms for researchers, theoretical guidance for ML implementation, and so on are discussed.
The medical conversational system can relieve the burden of doctors and improve the efficiency of healthcare, especially during the pandemic. This paper presents a medical conversational question answering (CQA) system based on the multi-modal knowledge graph, namely "LingYi", which is designed as a pipeline framework to maintain high flexibility. Our system utilizes automated medical procedures including medical triage, consultation, image-text drug recommendation and record. To conduct knowledge-grounded dialogues with patients, we first construct a Chinese Medical Multi-Modal Knowledge Graph (CM3KG) and collect a large-scale Chinese Medical CQA (CMCQA) dataset. Compared with the other existing medical question-answering systems, our system adopts several state-of-the-art technologies including medical entity disambiguation and medical dialogue generation, which is more friendly to provide medical services to patients. In addition, we have open-sourced our codes which contain back-end models and front-end web pages at https://github.com/WENGSYX/LingYi. The datasets including CM3KG at https://github.com/WENGSYX/CM3KG and CMCQA at https://github.com/WENGSYX/CMCQA are also released to further promote future research.
Over the last two decades, submodular function maximization has been the workhorse of many discrete optimization problems in machine learning applications. Traditionally, the study of submodular functions was based on binary function properties. However, such properties have an inherit weakness, namely, if an algorithm assumes functions that have a particular property, then it provides no guarantee for functions that violate this property, even when the violation is very slight. Therefore, recent works began to consider continuous versions of function properties. Probably the most significant among these (so far) are the submodularity ratio and the curvature, which were studied extensively together and separately. The monotonicity property of set functions plays a central role in submodular maximization. Nevertheless, and despite all the above works, no continuous version of this property has been suggested to date (as far as we know). This is unfortunate since submoduar functions that are almost monotone often arise in machine learning applications. In this work we fill this gap by defining the monotonicity ratio, which is a continues version of the monotonicity property. We then show that for many standard submodular maximization algorithms one can prove new approximation guarantees that depend on the monotonicity ratio; leading to improved approximation ratios for the common machine learning applications of movie recommendation, quadratic programming and image summarization.
With the proliferation of AI-enabled software systems in smart manufacturing, the role of such systems moves away from a reactive to a proactive role that provides context-specific support to manufacturing operators. In the frame of the EU funded Teaming.AI project, we identified the monitoring of teaming aspects in human-AI collaboration, the runtime monitoring and validation of ethical policies, and the support for experimentation with data and machine learning algorithms as the most relevant challenges for human-AI teaming in smart manufacturing. Based on these challenges, we developed a reference software architecture based on knowledge graphs, tracking and scene analysis, and components for relational machine learning with a particular focus on its scalability. Our approach uses knowledge graphs to capture product- and process specific knowledge in the manufacturing process and to utilize it for relational machine learning. This allows for context-specific recommendations for actions in the manufacturing process for the optimization of product quality and the prevention of physical harm. The empirical validation of this software architecture will be conducted in cooperation with three large-scale companies in the automotive, energy systems, and precision machining domain. In this paper we discuss the identified challenges for such a reference software architecture, present its preliminary status, and sketch our further research vision in this project.