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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Enhancing VAEs for Collaborative Filtering: Flexible Priors & Gating Mechanisms

Nov 03, 2019
Daeryong Kim, Bongwon Suh

Neural network based models for collaborative filtering have started to gain attention recently. One branch of research is based on using deep generative models to model user preferences where variational autoencoders were shown to produce state-of-the-art results. However, there are some potentially problematic characteristics of the current variational autoencoder for CF. The first is the too simplistic prior that VAEs incorporate for learning the latent representations of user preference. The other is the model's inability to learn deeper representations with more than one hidden layer for each network. Our goal is to incorporate appropriate techniques to mitigate the aforementioned problems of variational autoencoder CF and further improve the recommendation performance. Our work is the first to apply flexible priors to collaborative filtering and show that simple priors (in original VAEs) may be too restrictive to fully model user preferences and setting a more flexible prior gives significant gains. We experiment with the VampPrior, originally proposed for image generation, to examine the effect of flexible priors in CF. We also show that VampPriors coupled with gating mechanisms outperform SOTA results including the Variational Autoencoder for Collaborative Filtering by meaningful margins on 2 popular benchmark datasets (MovieLens & Netflix).

* In Thirteenth ACM Conference on Recommender Systems (RecSys '19), September 16-20, 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 5 pages 

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A Study of BFLOAT16 for Deep Learning Training

Jun 13, 2019
Dhiraj Kalamkar, Dheevatsa Mudigere, Naveen Mellempudi, Dipankar Das, Kunal Banerjee, Sasikanth Avancha, Dharma Teja Vooturi, Nataraj Jammalamadaka, Jianyu Huang, Hector Yuen, Jiyan Yang, Jongsoo Park, Alexander Heinecke, Evangelos Georganas, Sudarshan Srinivasan, Abhisek Kundu, Misha Smelyanskiy, Bharat Kaul, Pradeep Dubey

This paper presents the first comprehensive empirical study demonstrating the efficacy of the Brain Floating Point (BFLOAT16) half-precision format for Deep Learning training across image classification, speech recognition, language modeling, generative networks and industrial recommendation systems. BFLOAT16 is attractive for Deep Learning training for two reasons: the range of values it can represent is the same as that of IEEE 754 floating-point format (FP32) and conversion to/from FP32 is simple. Maintaining the same range as FP32 is important to ensure that no hyper-parameter tuning is required for convergence; e.g., IEEE 754 compliant half-precision floating point (FP16) requires hyper-parameter tuning. In this paper, we discuss the flow of tensors and various key operations in mixed precision training, and delve into details of operations, such as the rounding modes for converting FP32 tensors to BFLOAT16. We have implemented a method to emulate BFLOAT16 operations in Tensorflow, Caffe2, IntelCaffe, and Neon for our experiments. Our results show that deep learning training using BFLOAT16 tensors achieves the same state-of-the-art (SOTA) results across domains as FP32 tensors in the same number of iterations and with no changes to hyper-parameters.

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Stochastic Bandit Models for Delayed Conversions

Jul 12, 2017
Claire Vernade, Olivier Cappé, Vianney Perchet

Online advertising and product recommendation are important domains of applications for multi-armed bandit methods. In these fields, the reward that is immediately available is most often only a proxy for the actual outcome of interest, which we refer to as a conversion. For instance, in web advertising, clicks can be observed within a few seconds after an ad display but the corresponding sale --if any-- will take hours, if not days to happen. This paper proposes and investigates a new stochas-tic multi-armed bandit model in the framework proposed by Chapelle (2014) --based on empirical studies in the field of web advertising-- in which each action may trigger a future reward that will then happen with a stochas-tic delay. We assume that the probability of conversion associated with each action is unknown while the distribution of the conversion delay is known, distinguishing between the (idealized) case where the conversion events may be observed whatever their delay and the more realistic setting in which late conversions are censored. We provide performance lower bounds as well as two simple but efficient algorithms based on the UCB and KLUCB frameworks. The latter algorithm, which is preferable when conversion rates are low, is based on a Poissonization argument, of independent interest in other settings where aggregation of Bernoulli observations with different success probabilities is required.

* Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Aug 2017, Sydney, Australia 

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Adversarial Machine Learning at Scale

Feb 11, 2017
Alexey Kurakin, Ian Goodfellow, Samy Bengio

Adversarial examples are malicious inputs designed to fool machine learning models. They often transfer from one model to another, allowing attackers to mount black box attacks without knowledge of the target model's parameters. Adversarial training is the process of explicitly training a model on adversarial examples, in order to make it more robust to attack or to reduce its test error on clean inputs. So far, adversarial training has primarily been applied to small problems. In this research, we apply adversarial training to ImageNet. Our contributions include: (1) recommendations for how to succesfully scale adversarial training to large models and datasets, (2) the observation that adversarial training confers robustness to single-step attack methods, (3) the finding that multi-step attack methods are somewhat less transferable than single-step attack methods, so single-step attacks are the best for mounting black-box attacks, and (4) resolution of a "label leaking" effect that causes adversarially trained models to perform better on adversarial examples than on clean examples, because the adversarial example construction process uses the true label and the model can learn to exploit regularities in the construction process.

* 17 pages, 5 figures 

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Consistency and fluctuations for stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics

Jun 12, 2015
Yee Whye Teh, Alexandre Thiéry, Sebastian Vollmer

Applying standard Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms to large data sets is computationally expensive. Both the calculation of the acceptance probability and the creation of informed proposals usually require an iteration through the whole data set. The recently proposed stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics (SGLD) method circumvents this problem by generating proposals which are only based on a subset of the data, by skipping the accept-reject step and by using decreasing step-sizes sequence $(\delta_m)_{m \geq 0}$. %Under appropriate Lyapunov conditions, We provide in this article a rigorous mathematical framework for analysing this algorithm. We prove that, under verifiable assumptions, the algorithm is consistent, satisfies a central limit theorem (CLT) and its asymptotic bias-variance decomposition can be characterized by an explicit functional of the step-sizes sequence $(\delta_m)_{m \geq 0}$. We leverage this analysis to give practical recommendations for the notoriously difficult tuning of this algorithm: it is asymptotically optimal to use a step-size sequence of the type $\delta_m \asymp m^{-1/3}$, leading to an algorithm whose mean squared error (MSE) decreases at rate $\mathcal{O}(m^{-1/3})$

* 35 pages, 5 figures 

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Functional Anomaly Detection: a Benchmark Study

Jan 13, 2022
Guillaume Staerman, Eric Adjakossa, Pavlo Mozharovskyi, Vera Hofer, Jayant Sen Gupta, Stephan Clémençon

The increasing automation in many areas of the Industry expressly demands to design efficient machine-learning solutions for the detection of abnormal events. With the ubiquitous deployment of sensors monitoring nearly continuously the health of complex infrastructures, anomaly detection can now rely on measurements sampled at a very high frequency, providing a very rich representation of the phenomenon under surveillance. In order to exploit fully the information thus collected, the observations cannot be treated as multivariate data anymore and a functional analysis approach is required. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the performance of recent techniques for anomaly detection in the functional setup on real datasets. After an overview of the state-of-the-art and a visual-descriptive study, a variety of anomaly detection methods are compared. While taxonomies of abnormalities (e.g. shape, location) in the functional setup are documented in the literature, assigning a specific type to the identified anomalies appears to be a challenging task. Thus, strengths and weaknesses of the existing approaches are benchmarked in view of these highlighted types in a simulation study. Anomaly detection methods are next evaluated on two datasets, related to the monitoring of helicopters in flight and to the spectrometry of construction materials namely. The benchmark analysis is concluded by recommendation guidance for practitioners.

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Graph Neural Network Training with Data Tiering

Nov 10, 2021
Seung Won Min, Kun Wu, Mert Hidayetoğlu, Jinjun Xiong, Xiang Song, Wen-mei Hwu

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have shown success in learning from graph-structured data, with applications to fraud detection, recommendation, and knowledge graph reasoning. However, training GNN efficiently is challenging because: 1) GPU memory capacity is limited and can be insufficient for large datasets, and 2) the graph-based data structure causes irregular data access patterns. In this work, we provide a method to statistical analyze and identify more frequently accessed data ahead of GNN training. Our data tiering method not only utilizes the structure of input graph, but also an insight gained from actual GNN training process to achieve a higher prediction result. With our data tiering method, we additionally provide a new data placement and access strategy to further minimize the CPU-GPU communication overhead. We also take into account of multi-GPU GNN training as well and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our strategy in a multi-GPU system. The evaluation results show that our work reduces CPU-GPU traffic by 87-95% and improves the training speed of GNN over the existing solutions by 1.6-2.1x on graphs with hundreds of millions of nodes and billions of edges.

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Privacy-Preserving Communication-Efficient Federated Multi-Armed Bandits

Nov 02, 2021
Tan Li, Linqi Song

Communication bottleneck and data privacy are two critical concerns in federated multi-armed bandit (MAB) problems, such as situations in decision-making and recommendations of connected vehicles via wireless. In this paper, we design the privacy-preserving communication-efficient algorithm in such problems and study the interactions among privacy, communication and learning performance in terms of the regret. To be specific, we design privacy-preserving learning algorithms and communication protocols and derive the learning regret when networked private agents are performing online bandit learning in a master-worker, a decentralized and a hybrid structure. Our bandit learning algorithms are based on epoch-wise sub-optimal arm eliminations at each agent and agents exchange learning knowledge with the server/each other at the end of each epoch. Furthermore, we adopt the differential privacy (DP) approach to protect the data privacy at each agent when exchanging information; and we curtail communication costs by making less frequent communications with fewer agents participation. By analyzing the regret of our proposed algorithmic framework in the master-worker, decentralized and hybrid structures, we theoretically show tradeoffs between regret and communication costs/privacy. Finally, we empirically show these trade-offs which are consistent with our theoretical analysis.

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Unsupervised Domain-adaptive Hash for Networks

Aug 20, 2021
Tao He, Lianli Gao, Jingkuan Song, Yuan-Fang Li

Abundant real-world data can be naturally represented by large-scale networks, which demands efficient and effective learning algorithms. At the same time, labels may only be available for some networks, which demands these algorithms to be able to adapt to unlabeled networks. Domain-adaptive hash learning has enjoyed considerable success in the computer vision community in many practical tasks due to its lower cost in both retrieval time and storage footprint. However, it has not been applied to multiple-domain networks. In this work, we bridge this gap by developing an unsupervised domain-adaptive hash learning method for networks, dubbed UDAH. Specifically, we develop four {task-specific yet correlated} components: (1) network structure preservation via a hard groupwise contrastive loss, (2) relaxation-free supervised hashing, (3) cross-domain intersected discriminators, and (4) semantic center alignment. We conduct a wide range of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method on a range of tasks including link prediction, node classification, and neighbor recommendation. Our evaluation results demonstrate that our model achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art conventional discrete embedding methods over all the tasks.

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Clustering Introductory Computer Science Exercises Using Topic Modeling Methods

Apr 21, 2021
Laura O. Moraes, Carlos Eduardo Pedreira

Manually determining concepts present in a group of questions is a challenging and time-consuming process. However, the process is an essential step while modeling a virtual learning environment since a mapping between concepts and questions using mastery level assessment and recommendation engines are required. We investigated unsupervised semantic models (known as topic modeling techniques) to assist computer science teachers in this task and propose a method to transform Computer Science 1 teacher-provided code solutions into representative text documents, including the code structure information. By applying non-negative matrix factorization and latent Dirichlet allocation techniques, we extract the underlying relationship between questions and validate the results using an external dataset. We consider the interpretability of the learned concepts using 14 university professors' data, and the results confirm six semantically coherent clusters using the current dataset. Moreover, the six topics comprise the main concepts present in the test dataset, achieving 0.75 in the normalized pointwise mutual information metric. The metric correlates with human ratings, making the proposed method useful and providing semantics for large amounts of unannotated code.

* IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 42-54, Feb. 2021 
* 13 pages, 11 figures, published in IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 

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