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Dynamic Planning and Learning under Recovering Rewards

Jun 28, 2021
David Simchi-Levi, Zeyu Zheng, Feng Zhu

Motivated by emerging applications such as live-streaming e-commerce, promotions and recommendations, we introduce a general class of multi-armed bandit problems that have the following two features: (i) the decision maker can pull and collect rewards from at most $K$ out of $N$ different arms in each time period; (ii) the expected reward of an arm immediately drops after it is pulled, and then non parametrically recovers as the idle time increases. With the objective of maximizing expected cumulative rewards over $T$ time periods, we propose, construct and prove performance guarantees for a class of "Purely Periodic Policies". For the offline problem when all model parameters are known, our proposed policy obtains an approximation ratio that is at the order of $1-\mathcal O(1/\sqrt{K})$, which is asymptotically optimal when $K$ grows to infinity. For the online problem when the model parameters are unknown and need to be learned, we design an Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) based policy that approximately has $\widetilde{\mathcal O}(N\sqrt{T})$ regret against the offline benchmark. Our framework and policy design may have the potential to be adapted into other offline planning and online learning applications with non-stationary and recovering rewards.

* Accepted by ICML 2021 

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The Role of Entropy in Guiding a Connection Prover

May 31, 2021
Zsolt Zombori, Josef Urban, Miroslav Olšák

In this work we study how to learn good algorithms for selecting reasoning steps in theorem proving. We explore this in the connection tableau calculus implemented by leanCoP where the partial tableau provides a clean and compact notion of a state to which a limited number of inferences can be applied. We start by incorporating a state-of-the-art learning algorithm -- a graph neural network (GNN) -- into the plCoP theorem prover. Then we use it to observe the system's behaviour in a reinforcement learning setting, i.e., when learning inference guidance from successful Monte-Carlo tree searches on many problems. Despite its better pattern matching capability, the GNN initially performs worse than a simpler previously used learning algorithm. We observe that the simpler algorithm is less confident, i.e., its recommendations have higher entropy. This leads us to explore how the entropy of the inference selection implemented via the neural network influences the proof search. This is related to research in human decision-making under uncertainty, and in particular the probability matching theory. Our main result shows that a proper entropy regularisation, i.e., training the GNN not to be overconfident, greatly improves plCoP's performance on a large mathematical corpus.


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Novel Recording Studio Features for Music Information Retrieval

Jan 25, 2021
Tim Ziemer, Pattararat Kiattipadungkul, Tanyarin Karuchit

In the recording studio, producers of Electronic Dance Music (EDM) spend more time creating, shaping, mixing and mastering sounds, than with compositional aspects or arrangement. They tune the sound by close listening and by leveraging audio metering and audio analysis tools, until they successfully creat the desired sound aesthetics. DJs of EDM tend to play sets of songs that meet their sound ideal. We therefore suggest using audio metering and monitoring tools from the recording studio to analyze EDM, instead of relying on conventional low-level audio features. We test our novel set of features by a simple classification task. We attribute songs to DJs who would play the specific song. This new set of features and the focus on DJ sets is targeted at EDM as it takes the producer and DJ culture into account. With simple dimensionality reduction and machine learning these features enable us to attribute a song to a DJ with an accuracy of 63%. The features from the audio metering and monitoring tools in the recording studio could serve for many applications in Music Information Retrieval, such as genre, style and era classification and music recommendation for both DJs and consumers of electronic dance music.

* 13 pages, 9 figures, Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Dec. 2020 

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DSSLP: A Distributed Framework for Semi-supervised Link Prediction

Mar 10, 2020
Dalong Zhang, Xianzheng Song, Ziqi Liu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xin Huang, Lin Wang, Jun Zhou

Link prediction is widely used in a variety of industrial applications, such as merchant recommendation, fraudulent transaction detection, and so on. However, it's a great challenge to train and deploy a link prediction model on industrial-scale graphs with billions of nodes and edges. In this work, we present a scalable and distributed framework for semi-supervised link prediction problem (named DSSLP), which is able to handle industrial-scale graphs. Instead of training model on the whole graph, DSSLP is proposed to train on the \emph{$k$-hops neighborhood} of nodes in a mini-batch setting, which helps reduce the scale of the input graph and distribute the training procedure. In order to generate negative examples effectively, DSSLP contains a distributed batched runtime sampling module. It implements uniform and dynamic sampling approaches, and is able to adaptively construct positive and negative examples to guide the training process. Moreover, DSSLP proposes a model-split strategy to accelerate the speed of inference process of the link prediction task. Experimental results demonstrate that the effectiveness and efficiency of DSSLP in serval public datasets as well as real-world datasets of industrial-scale graphs.


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Machine learning driven synthesis of few-layered WTe2

Oct 10, 2019
Manzhang Xu, Bijun Tang, Chao Zhu, Yuhao Lu, Chao Zhu, Lu Zheng, Jingyu Zhang, Nannan Han, Yuxi Guo, Jun Di, Pin Song, Yongmin He, Lixing Kang, Zhiyong Zhang, Wu Zhao, Cuntai Guan, Xuewen Wang, Zheng Liu

Reducing the lateral scale of two-dimensional (2D) materials to one-dimensional (1D) has attracted substantial research interest not only to achieve competitive electronic device applications but also for the exploration of fundamental physical properties. Controllable synthesis of high-quality 1D nanoribbons (NRs) is thus highly desirable and essential for the further study. Traditional exploration of the optimal synthesis conditions of novel materials is based on the trial-and-error approach, which is time consuming, costly and laborious. Recently, machine learning (ML) has demonstrated promising capability in guiding material synthesis through effectively learning from the past data and then making recommendations. Here, we report the implementation of supervised ML for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of high-quality 1D few-layered WTe2 nanoribbons (NRs). The synthesis parameters of the WTe2 NRs are optimized by the trained ML model. On top of that, the growth mechanism of as-synthesized 1T' few-layered WTe2 NRs is further proposed, which may inspire the growth strategies for other 1D nanostructures. Our findings suggest that ML is a powerful and efficient approach to aid the synthesis of 1D nanostructures, opening up new opportunities for intelligent material development.


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A Study of BFLOAT16 for Deep Learning Training

Jun 10, 2019
Dhiraj Kalamkar, Dheevatsa Mudigere, Naveen Mellempudi, Dipankar Das, Kunal Banerjee, Sasikanth Avancha, Dharma Teja Vooturi, Nataraj Jammalamadaka, Jianyu Huang, Hector Yuen, Jiyan Yang, Jongsoo Park, Alexander Heinecke, Evangelos Georganas, Sudarshan Srinivasan, Abhisek Kundu, Misha Smelyanskiy, Bharat Kaul, Pradeep Dubey

This paper presents the first comprehensive empirical study demonstrating the efficacy of the Brain Floating Point (BFLOAT16) half-precision format for DeepLearning training across image classification, speech recognition, language model-ing, generative networks, and industrial recommendation systems. BFLOAT16 is attractive for Deep Learning training for two reasons: the range of values it can represent is the same as that of IEEE 754 floating-point format (FP32) and conversion to/from FP32 is simple. Maintaining the same range as FP32 is important to ensure that no hyper-parameter tuning is required for convergence; e.g., IEEE 754compliant half-precision floating point (FP16) requires hyper-parameter tuning. In this paper, we discuss the flow of tensors and various key operations in mixed-precision training and delve into details of operations, such as the rounding modes for converting FP32 tensors to BFLOAT16. We have implemented a method to emulate BFLOAT16 operations in Tensorflow, Caffe2, IntelCaffe, and Neon for our experiments. Our results show that deep learning training using BFLOAT16tensors achieves the same state-of-the-art (SOTA) results across domains as FP32tensors in the same number of iterations and with no changes to hyper-parameters.


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Deep Reinforcement Learning for Dynamic Treatment Regimes on Medical Registry Data

Jan 28, 2018
Ning Liu, Ying Liu, Brent Logan, Zhiyuan Xu, Jian Tang, Yanzhi Wang

This paper presents the first deep reinforcement learning (DRL) framework to estimate the optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes from observational medical data. This framework is more flexible and adaptive for high dimensional action and state spaces than existing reinforcement learning methods to model real-life complexity in heterogeneous disease progression and treatment choices, with the goal of providing doctor and patients the data-driven personalized decision recommendations. The proposed DRL framework comprises (i) a supervised learning step to predict the most possible expert actions, and (ii) a deep reinforcement learning step to estimate the long-term value function of Dynamic Treatment Regimes. Both steps depend on deep neural networks. As a key motivational example, we have implemented the proposed framework on a data set from the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) registry database, focusing on the sequence of prevention and treatments for acute and chronic graft versus host disease after transplantation. In the experimental results, we have demonstrated promising accuracy in predicting human experts' decisions, as well as the high expected reward function in the DRL-based dynamic treatment regimes.


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AHP: Learning to Negative Sample for Hyperedge Prediction

Apr 15, 2022
Hyunjin Hwang, Seungwoo Lee, Chanyoung Park, Kijung Shin

Hypergraphs (i.e., sets of hyperedges) naturally represent group relations (e.g., researchers co-authoring a paper and ingredients used together in a recipe), each of which corresponds to a hyperedge (i.e., a subset of nodes). Predicting future or missing hyperedges bears significant implications for many applications (e.g., collaboration and recipe recommendation). What makes hyperedge prediction particularly challenging is the vast number of non-hyperedge subsets, which grows exponentially with the number of nodes. Since it is prohibitive to use all of them as negative examples for model training, it is inevitable to sample a very small portion of them, and to this end, heuristic sampling schemes have been employed. However, trained models suffer from poor generalization capability for examples of different natures. In this paper, we propose AHP, an adversarial training-based hyperedge-prediction method. It learns to sample negative examples without relying on any heuristic schemes. Using six real hypergraphs, we show that AHP generalizes better to negative examples of various natures. It yields up to 28.2% higher AUROC than the best existing methods and often even outperforms its variants with sampling schemes tailored to test sets.

* To be published in the Proceedings of the 45th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR 2022) 

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