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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Reinforced MOOCs Concept Recommendation in Heterogeneous Information Networks

Apr 13, 2022
Jibing Gong, Yao Wan, Ye Liu, Xuewen Li, Yi Zhao, Cheng Wang, Qing Li, Wenzheng Feng, Jie Tang

Massive open online courses (MOOCs), which provide a large-scale interactive participation and open access via the web, are becoming a modish way for online and distance education. To help users have a better study experience, many MOOC platforms have provided the services of recommending courses to users. However, we argue that directly recommending a course to users will ignore the expertise levels of different users. To fill this gap, this paper studies the problem of concept recommendation in a more fine-grained view. We propose a novel Heterogeneous Information Networks based Concept Recommender with Reinforcement Learning (HinCRec-RL) incorporated for concept recommendation in MOOCs. Specifically, we first formulate the concept recommendation in MOOCs as a reinforcement learning problem to better model the dynamic interaction among users and knowledge concepts. In addition, to mitigate the data sparsity issue which also exists in many other recommendation tasks, we consider a heterogeneous information network (HIN) among users, courses, videos and concepts, to better learn the semantic representation of users. In particular, we use the meta-paths on HIN to guide the propagation of users' preferences and propose a heterogeneous graph attention network to represent the meta-paths. To validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, we conduct comprehensive experiments on a real-world dataset from XuetangX, a popular MOOC platform from China. The promising results show that our proposed approach can outperform other baselines.


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A Federated Multi-View Deep Learning Framework for Privacy-Preserving Recommendations

Aug 25, 2020
Mingkai Huang, Hao Li, Bing Bai, Chang Wang, Kun Bai, Fei Wang

Privacy-preserving recommendations are recently gaining momentum, since the decentralized user data is increasingly harder to collect, by recommendation service providers, due to the serious concerns over user privacy and data security. This situation is further exacerbated by the strict government regulations such as Europe's General Data Privacy Regulations(GDPR). Federated Learning(FL) is a newly developed privacy-preserving machine learning paradigm to bridge data repositories without compromising data security and privacy. Thus many federated recommendation(FedRec) algorithms have been proposed to realize personalized privacy-preserving recommendations. However, existing FedRec algorithms, mostly extended from traditional collaborative filtering(CF) method, cannot address cold-start problem well. In addition, their performance overhead w.r.t. model accuracy, trained in a federated setting, is often non-negligible comparing to centralized recommendations. This paper studies this issue and presents FL-MV-DSSM, a generic content-based federated multi-view recommendation framework that not only addresses the cold-start problem, but also significantly boosts the recommendation performance by learning a federated model from multiple data source for capturing richer user-level features. The new federated multi-view setting, proposed by FL-MV-DSSM, opens new usage models and brings in new security challenges to FL in recommendation scenarios. We prove the security guarantees of \xxx, and empirical evaluations on FL-MV-DSSM and its variations with public datasets demonstrate its effectiveness. Our codes will be released if this paper is accepted.


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From Clicks to Conversions: Recommendation for long-term reward

Sep 01, 2020
Philomène Chagniot, Flavian Vasile, David Rohde

Recommender systems are often optimised for short-term reward: a recommendation is considered successful if a reward (e.g. a click) can be observed immediately after the recommendation. The advantage of this framework is that with some reasonable (although questionable) assumptions, it allows familiar supervised learning tools to be used for the recommendation task. However, it means that long-term business metrics, e.g. sales or retention are ignored. In this paper we introduce a framework for modeling long-term rewards in the RecoGym simulation environment. We use this newly introduced functionality to showcase problems introduced by the last-click attribution scheme in the case of conversion-optimized recommendations and propose a simple extension that leads to state-of-the-art results.


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Will this Course Increase or Decrease Your GPA? Towards Grade-aware Course Recommendation

Apr 22, 2019
Sara Morsy, George Karypis

In order to help undergraduate students towards successfully completing their degrees, developing tools that can assist students during the course selection process is a significant task in the education domain. The optimal set of courses for each student should include courses that help him/her graduate in a timely fashion and for which he/she is well-prepared for so as to get a good grade in. To this end, we propose two different grade-aware course recommendation approaches to recommend to each student his/her optimal set of courses. The first approach ranks the courses by using an objective function that differentiates between courses that are expected to increase or decrease a student's GPA. The second approach combines the grades predicted by grade prediction methods with the rankings produced by course recommendation methods to improve the final course rankings. To obtain the course rankings in the first approach, we adapt two widely-used representation learning techniques to learn the optimal temporal ordering between courses. Our experiments on a large dataset obtained from the University of Minnesota that includes students from 23 different majors show that the grade-aware course recommendation methods can do better on recommending more courses in which the students are expected to perform well and recommending fewer courses in which they are expected not to perform well in than grade-unaware course recommendation methods.

* Under revision for Journal of Educational Data Mining (JEDM) 

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Reinforced Meta-path Selection for Recommendation on Heterogeneous Information Networks

Dec 28, 2021
Wentao Ning, Reynold Cheng, Jiajun Shen, Nur Al Hasan Haldar, Ben Kao, Nan Huo, Wai Kit Lam, Tian Li, Bo Tang

Heterogeneous Information Networks (HINs) capture complex relations among entities of various kinds and have been used extensively to improve the effectiveness of various data mining tasks, such as in recommender systems. Many existing HIN-based recommendation algorithms utilize hand-crafted meta-paths to extract semantic information from the networks. These algorithms rely on extensive domain knowledge with which the best set of meta-paths can be selected. For applications where the HINs are highly complex with numerous node and link types, the approach of hand-crafting a meta-path set is too tedious and error-prone. To tackle this problem, we propose the Reinforcement learning-based Meta-path Selection (RMS) framework to select effective meta-paths and to incorporate them into existing meta-path-based recommenders. To identify high-quality meta-paths, RMS trains a reinforcement learning (RL) based policy network(agent), which gets rewards from the performance on the downstream recommendation tasks. We design a HIN-based recommendation model, HRec, that effectively uses the meta-path information. We further integrate HRec with RMS and derive our recommendation solution, RMS-HRec, that automatically utilizes the effective meta-paths. Experiments on real datasets show that our algorithm can significantly improve the performance of recommendation models by capturing important meta-paths automatically.


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Two-Stage Session-based Recommendations with Candidate Rank Embeddings

Aug 22, 2019
José Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez, Jui-Chieh Wu, Mustafa Khandwawala

Recent advances in Session-based recommender systems have gained attention due to their potential of providing real-time personalized recommendations with high recall, especially when compared to traditional methods like matrix factorization and item-based collaborative filtering. Nowadays, two of the most recent methods are Short-Term Attention/Memory Priority Model for Session-based Recommendation (STAMP) and Neural Attentive Session-based Recommendation (NARM). However, when these two methods were applied in the similar-item recommendation dataset of Zalando (Fashion-Similar), they did not work out-of-the-box compared to a simple Collaborative-Filtering approach. Aiming for improving the similar-item recommendation, we propose to concentrate efforts on enhancing the rank of the few most relevant items from the original recommendations, by employing the information of the session of the user encoded by an attention network. The efficacy of this strategy was confirmed when using a novel Candidate Rank Embedding that encodes the global ranking information of each candidate in the re-ranking process. Experimental results in Fashion-Similar show significant improvements over the baseline on Recall and MRR at 20, as well as improvements in Click Through Rate based on an online test. Additionally, it is important to point out from the evaluation that was performed the potential of this method on the next click prediction problem because when applied to STAMP and NARM, it improves the Recall and MRR at 20 on two publicly available real-world datasets.

* Accepted in the Fashion RECSYS workshop recsysXfashion'19, September 20, 2019, Copenhagen, Denmark 

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DKN: Deep Knowledge-Aware Network for News Recommendation

Jan 30, 2018
Hongwei Wang, Fuzheng Zhang, Xing Xie, Minyi Guo

Online news recommender systems aim to address the information explosion of news and make personalized recommendation for users. In general, news language is highly condensed, full of knowledge entities and common sense. However, existing methods are unaware of such external knowledge and cannot fully discover latent knowledge-level connections among news. The recommended results for a user are consequently limited to simple patterns and cannot be extended reasonably. Moreover, news recommendation also faces the challenges of high time-sensitivity of news and dynamic diversity of users' interests. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we propose a deep knowledge-aware network (DKN) that incorporates knowledge graph representation into news recommendation. DKN is a content-based deep recommendation framework for click-through rate prediction. The key component of DKN is a multi-channel and word-entity-aligned knowledge-aware convolutional neural network (KCNN) that fuses semantic-level and knowledge-level representations of news. KCNN treats words and entities as multiple channels, and explicitly keeps their alignment relationship during convolution. In addition, to address users' diverse interests, we also design an attention module in DKN to dynamically aggregate a user's history with respect to current candidate news. Through extensive experiments on a real online news platform, we demonstrate that DKN achieves substantial gains over state-of-the-art deep recommendation models. We also validate the efficacy of the usage of knowledge in DKN.

* The 27th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW'18) 

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Auto-detecting groups based on textual similarity for group recommendations

Jul 15, 2021
Chintoo Kumar, C. Ravindranath Chowdary

In general, recommender systems are designed to provide personalized items to a user. But in few cases, items are recommended for a group, and the challenge is to aggregate the individual user preferences to infer the recommendation to a group. It is also important to consider the similarity of characteristics among the members of a group to generate a better recommendation. Members of an automatically identified group will have similar characteristics, and reaching a consensus with a decision-making process is preferable in this case. It requires users-items and their rating interactions over a utility matrix to auto-detect the groups in group recommendations. We may not overlook other intrinsic information to form a group. The textual information also plays a pivotal role in user clustering. In this paper, we auto-detect the groups based on the textual similarity of the metadata (review texts). We consider the order in user preferences in our models. We have conducted extensive experiments over two real-world datasets to check the efficacy of the proposed models. We have also conducted a competitive comparison with a baseline model to show the improvements in the quality of recommendations.


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Federated Social Recommendation with Graph Neural Network

Nov 21, 2021
Zhiwei Liu, Liangwei Yang, Ziwei Fan, Hao Peng, Philip S. Yu

Recommender systems have become prosperous nowadays, designed to predict users' potential interests in items by learning embeddings. Recent developments of the Graph Neural Networks~(GNNs) also provide recommender systems with powerful backbones to learn embeddings from a user-item graph. However, only leveraging the user-item interactions suffers from the cold-start issue due to the difficulty in data collection. Hence, current endeavors propose fusing social information with user-item interactions to alleviate it, which is the social recommendation problem. Existing work employs GNNs to aggregate both social links and user-item interactions simultaneously. However, they all require centralized storage of the social links and item interactions of users, which leads to privacy concerns. Additionally, according to strict privacy protection under General Data Protection Regulation, centralized data storage may not be feasible in the future, urging a decentralized framework of social recommendation. To this end, we devise a novel framework \textbf{Fe}drated \textbf{So}cial recommendation with \textbf{G}raph neural network (FeSoG). Firstly, FeSoG adopts relational attention and aggregation to handle heterogeneity. Secondly, FeSoG infers user embeddings using local data to retain personalization. Last but not least, the proposed model employs pseudo-labeling techniques with item sampling to protect the privacy and enhance training. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets justify the effectiveness of FeSoG in completing social recommendation and privacy protection. We are the first work proposing a federated learning framework for social recommendation to the best of our knowledge.

* Accepted to ACM TIST 

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