Recommendation systems and computing advertisements have gradually entered the field of academic research from the field of commercial applications. Click-through rate prediction is one of the core research issues because the prediction accuracy affects the user experience and the revenue of merchants and platforms. Feature engineering is very important to improve click-through rate prediction. Traditional feature engineering heavily relies on people's experience, and is difficult to construct a feature combination that can describe the complex patterns implied in the data. This paper combines traditional feature combination methods and deep neural networks to automate feature combinations to improve the accuracy of click-through rate prediction. We propose a mechannism named 'Field-aware Neural Factorization Machine' (FNFM). This model can have strong second order feature interactive learning ability like Field-aware Factorization Machine, on this basis, deep neural network is used for higher-order feature combination learning. Experiments show that the model has stronger expression ability than current deep learning feature combination models like the DeepFM, DCN and NFM.
Failures in robotics can have disastrous consequences that worsen rapidly over time. This, the ability to rely on robotic systems, depends on our ability to monitor them and intercede when necessary, manually or autonomously. Prior work in this area surveys intrusion detection and security challenges in robotics, but a discussion of the more general anomaly detection problems is lacking. As such, we provide a brief insight-focused discussion and frameworks of thought on some compelling open problems with anomaly detection in robotic systems. Namely, we discuss non-malicious faults, invalid data, intentional anomalous behavior, hierarchical anomaly detection, distribution of computation, and anomaly correction on the fly. We demonstrate the need for additional work in these areas by providing a case study which examines the limitations of implementing a basic anomaly detection (AD) system in the Robot Operating System (ROS) 2 middleware. Showing that if even supporting a basic system is a significant hurdle, the path to more complex and advanced AD systems is even more problematic. We discuss these ROS 2 platform limitations to support solutions in robotic anomaly detection and provide recommendations to address the issues discovered.
We present in this paper our approach for modeling inter-topic preferences of Twitter users: for example, those who agree with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) also agree with free trade. This kind of knowledge is useful not only for stance detection across multiple topics but also for various real-world applications including public opinion surveys, electoral predictions, electoral campaigns, and online debates. In order to extract users' preferences on Twitter, we design linguistic patterns in which people agree and disagree about specific topics (e.g., "A is completely wrong"). By applying these linguistic patterns to a collection of tweets, we extract statements agreeing and disagreeing with various topics. Inspired by previous work on item recommendation, we formalize the task of modeling inter-topic preferences as matrix factorization: representing users' preferences as a user-topic matrix and mapping both users and topics onto a latent feature space that abstracts the preferences. Our experimental results demonstrate both that our proposed approach is useful in predicting missing preferences of users and that the latent vector representations of topics successfully encode inter-topic preferences.
A determinantal point process (DPP) is a probabilistic model of set diversity compactly parameterized by a positive semi-definite kernel matrix. To fit a DPP to a given task, we would like to learn the entries of its kernel matrix by maximizing the log-likelihood of the available data. However, log-likelihood is non-convex in the entries of the kernel matrix, and this learning problem is conjectured to be NP-hard. Thus, previous work has instead focused on more restricted convex learning settings: learning only a single weight for each row of the kernel matrix, or learning weights for a linear combination of DPPs with fixed kernel matrices. In this work we propose a novel algorithm for learning the full kernel matrix. By changing the kernel parameterization from matrix entries to eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then lower-bounding the likelihood in the manner of expectation-maximization algorithms, we obtain an effective optimization procedure. We test our method on a real-world product recommendation task, and achieve relative gains of up to 16.5% in test log-likelihood compared to the naive approach of maximizing likelihood by projected gradient ascent on the entries of the kernel matrix.
For an artificial intelligence (AI) to be aligned with human values (or human preferences), it must first learn those values. AI systems that are trained on human behavior, risk miscategorising human irrationalities as human values -- and then optimising for these irrationalities. Simply learning human values still carries risks: AI learning them will inevitably also gain information on human irrationalities and human behaviour/policy. Both of these can be dangerous: knowing human policy allows an AI to become generically more powerful (whether it is partially aligned or not aligned at all), while learning human irrationalities allows it to exploit humans without needing to provide value in return. This paper analyses the danger in developing artificial intelligence that learns about human irrationalities and human policy, and constructs a model recommendation system with various levels of information about human biases, human policy, and human values. It concludes that, whatever the power and knowledge of the AI, it is more dangerous for it to know human irrationalities than human values. Thus it is better for the AI to learn human values directly, rather than learning human biases and then deducing values from behaviour.
Over the past decades, for One-Class Collaborative Filtering (OCCF), many learning objectives have been researched based on a variety of underlying probabilistic models. From our analysis, we observe that models trained with different OCCF objectives capture distinct aspects of user-item relationships, which in turn produces complementary recommendations. This paper proposes a novel OCCF framework, named ConCF, that exploits the complementarity from heterogeneous objectives throughout the training process, generating a more generalizable model. ConCF constructs a multi-branch variant of a given target model by adding auxiliary heads, each of which is trained with heterogeneous objectives. Then, it generates consensus by consolidating the various views from the heads, and guides the heads based on the consensus. The heads are collaboratively evolved based on their complementarity throughout the training, which again results in generating more accurate consensus iteratively. After training, we convert the multi-branch architecture back to the original target model by removing the auxiliary heads, thus there is no extra inference cost for the deployment. Our extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate that ConCF significantly improves the generalization of the model by exploiting the complementarity from heterogeneous objectives.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) are deep convolutional architectures consisting of layers composed by graph convolutions and pointwise nonlinearities. Due to their invariance and stability properties, GNNs are provably successful at learning representations from network data. However, training them requires matrix computations which can be expensive for large graphs. To address this limitation, we investigate the ability of GNNs to be transferred across graphs. We consider graphons, which are both graph limits and generative models for weighted and stochastic graphs, to define limit objects of graph convolutions and GNNs -- graphon convolutions and graphon neural networks (WNNs) -- which we use as generative models for graph convolutions and GNNs. We show that these graphon filters and WNNs can be approximated by graph filters and GNNs sampled from them on weighted and stochastic graphs. Using these results, we then derive error bounds for transferring graph filters and GNNs across such graphs. These bounds show that transferability increases with the graph size, and reveal a tradeoff between transferability and spectral discriminability which in GNNs is alleviated by the pointwise nonlinearities. These findings are further verified empirically in numerical experiments in movie recommendation and decentralized robot control.
Untile recently crowdsourcing has been primarily conceived as an online activity to harness resources for problem solving. However the emergence of opportunistic networking (ON) has opened up crowdsourcing to the spatial domain. In this paper we bring the ON model for potential crowdsourcing in the smart city environment. We introduce cognitive features to the ON that allow users' mobile devices to become aware of the surrounding physical environment. Specifically, we exploit cognitive psychology studies on dynamic memory structures and cognitive heuristics, i.e. mental models that describe how the human brain handle decision-making amongst complex and real-time stimuli. Combined with ON, these cognitive features allow devices to act as proxies in the cyber-world of their users and exchange knowledge to deliver awareness of places in an urban environment. This is done through tags associated with locations. They represent features that are perceived by humans about a place. We consider the extent to which this knowledge becomes available to participants, using interactions with locations and other nodes. This is assessed taking into account a wide range of cognitive parameters. Outcomes are important because this functionality could support a new type of recommendation system that is independent of the traditional forms of networking.
As pairwise ranking becomes broadly employed for elections, sports competitions, recommendations, and so on, attackers have strong motivation and incentives to manipulate the ranking list. They could inject malicious comparisons into the training data to fool the victim. Such a technique is called poisoning attack in regression and classification tasks. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we initiate the first systematic investigation of data poisoning attacks on pairwise ranking algorithms, which can be formalized as the dynamic and static games between the ranker and the attacker and can be modeled as certain kinds of integer programming problems. To break the computational hurdle of the underlying integer programming problems, we reformulate them into the distributionally robust optimization (DRO) problems, which are computationally tractable. Based on such DRO formulations, we propose two efficient poisoning attack algorithms and establish the associated theoretical guarantees. The effectiveness of the suggested poisoning attack strategies is demonstrated by a series of toy simulations and several real data experiments. These experimental results show that the proposed methods can significantly reduce the performance of the ranker in the sense that the correlation between the true ranking list and the aggregated results can be decreased dramatically.
Recently, much attention has been paid to the societal impact of AI, especially concerns regarding its fairness. A growing body of research has identified unfair AI systems and proposed methods to debias them, yet many challenges remain. Representation learning for Heterogeneous Information Networks (HINs), a fundamental building block used in complex network mining, has socially consequential applications such as automated career counseling, but there have been few attempts to ensure that it will not encode or amplify harmful biases, e.g. sexism in the job market. To address this gap, in this paper we propose a comprehensive set of de-biasing methods for fair HINs representation learning, including sampling-based, projection-based, and graph neural networks (GNNs)-based techniques. We systematically study the behavior of these algorithms, especially their capability in balancing the trade-off between fairness and prediction accuracy. We evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in an automated career counseling application where we mitigate gender bias in career recommendation. Based on the evaluation results on two datasets, we identify the most effective fair HINs representation learning techniques under different conditions.