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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Power Saving Techniques in 3GPP 5G New Radio: A Comprehensive Latency and Reliability Analysis

Apr 02, 2022
Ali A. Esswie

Energy efficiency is critical for future sustainable cellular systems. Power saving optimization has been a key part of the fifth generation (5G) new radio specifications. For 5Gadvanced and future 6G, with the anticipation of a trillion internet of things (IoTs) devices with non-rechargeable or low-density batteries, device power efficiency is rather essential. There are numerous contributions from industry and academia which present the potential power saving gains of the various 5G power saving techniques; however, there is a lack of art on the performance cost paid to achieve such power saving gains. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the radio latency and reliability cost, which is lost due to a certain 5G new radio power saving feature. A thorough review of the state of-the-art 5G power saving techniques is introduced. Extensive system level simulations are performed to evaluate the latency and reliability cost of the considered power saving features. The paper offers valuable recommendations for supporting power efficient latency-critical traffic for beyond 5G-advanced systems.

* IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2022 

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DataLab: A Platform for Data Analysis and Intervention

Feb 25, 2022
Yang Xiao, Jinlan Fu, Weizhe Yuan, Vijay Viswanathan, Zhoumianze Liu, Yixin Liu, Graham Neubig, Pengfei Liu

Despite data's crucial role in machine learning, most existing tools and research tend to focus on systems on top of existing data rather than how to interpret and manipulate data. In this paper, we propose DataLab, a unified data-oriented platform that not only allows users to interactively analyze the characteristics of data, but also provides a standardized interface for different data processing operations. Additionally, in view of the ongoing proliferation of datasets, \toolname has features for dataset recommendation and global vision analysis that help researchers form a better view of the data ecosystem. So far, DataLab covers 1,715 datasets and 3,583 of its transformed version (e.g., hyponyms replacement), where 728 datasets support various analyses (e.g., with respect to gender bias) with the help of 140M samples annotated by 318 feature functions. DataLab is under active development and will be supported going forward. We have released a web platform, web API, Python SDK, PyPI published package and online documentation, which hopefully, can meet the diverse needs of researchers.

* DataLab Web Platform: http://datalab.nlpedia.ai/ 

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A Survey on Machine Learning-based Misbehavior Detection Systems for 5G and Beyond Vehicular Networks

Jan 25, 2022
Abdelwahab Boualouache, Thomas Engel

Significant progress has been made towards deploying Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) technology. Integrating V2X with 5G has enabled ultra-low latency and high-reliability V2X communications. However, while communication performance has enhanced, security and privacy issues have increased. Attacks have become more aggressive, and attackers have become more strategic. Public Key Infrastructure proposed by standardization bodies cannot solely defend against these attacks. Thus, in complementary of that, sophisticated systems should be designed to detect such attacks and attackers. Machine Learning (ML) has recently emerged as a key enabler to secure our future roads. Many V2X Misbehavior Detection Systems (MDSs) have adopted this paradigm. Yet, analyzing these systems is a research gap, and developing effective ML-based MDSs is still an open issue. To this end, this paper present a comprehensive survey and classification of ML-based MDSs. We analyze and discuss them from both security and ML perspectives. Then, we give some learned lessons and recommendations helping in developing, validating, and deploying ML-based MDSs. Finally, we highlight open research and standardization issues with some future directions.


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Semi-supervised Network Embedding with Differentiable Deep Quantisation

Aug 20, 2021
Tao He, Lianli Gao, Jingkuan Song, Yuan-Fang Li

Learning accurate low-dimensional embeddings for a network is a crucial task as it facilitates many downstream network analytics tasks. For large networks, the trained embeddings often require a significant amount of space to store, making storage and processing a challenge. Building on our previous work on semi-supervised network embedding, we develop d-SNEQ, a differentiable DNN-based quantisation method for network embedding. d-SNEQ incorporates a rank loss to equip the learned quantisation codes with rich high-order information and is able to substantially compress the size of trained embeddings, thus reducing storage footprint and accelerating retrieval speed. We also propose a new evaluation metric, path prediction, to fairly and more directly evaluate model performance on the preservation of high-order information. Our evaluation on four real-world networks of diverse characteristics shows that d-SNEQ outperforms a number of state-of-the-art embedding methods in link prediction, path prediction, node classification, and node recommendation while being far more space- and time-efficient.


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With One Voice: Composing a Travel Voice Assistant from Re-purposed Models

Aug 04, 2021
Shachaf Poran, Gil Amsalem, Amit Beka, Dmitri Goldenberg

Voice assistants provide users a new way of interacting with digital products, allowing them to retrieve information and complete tasks with an increased sense of control and flexibility. Such products are comprised of several machine learning models, like Speech-to-Text transcription, Named Entity Recognition and Resolution, and Text Classification. Building a voice assistant from scratch takes the prolonged efforts of several teams constructing numerous models and orchestrating between components. Alternatives such as using third-party vendors or re-purposing existing models may be considered to shorten time-to-market and development costs. However, each option has its benefits and drawbacks. We present key insights from building a voice search assistant for Booking.com search and recommendation system. Our paper compares the achieved performance and development efforts in dedicated tailor-made solutions against existing re-purposed models. We share and discuss our data-driven decisions about implementation trade-offs and their estimated outcomes in hindsight, showing that a fully functional machine learning product can be built from existing models.

* 2nd International Workshop on Industrial Recommendation Systems @ KDD 2021 
* 2nd International Workshop on Industrial Recommendation Systems @ KDD 2021 

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Development of a conversing and body temperature scanning autonomously navigating robot to help screen for COVID-19

Jun 18, 2021
Ryan Kim

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the most common symptom displayed by patients has been a fever, leading to the use of temperature scanning as a preemptive measure to detect potential carriers of the virus. Human employees with handheld thermometers have been used to fulfill this task, however this puts them at risk as they cannot be physically distanced and the sequential nature of this method leads to great inconveniences and inefficiency. The proposed solution is an autonomously navigating robot capable of conversing and scanning people's temperature to detect fevers and help screen for COVID-19. To satisfy this objective, the robot must be able to (1) navigate autonomously, (2) detect and track people, and (3) get individuals' temperature reading and converse with them if it exceeds 38{\deg}C. An autonomously navigating mobile robot is used with a manipulator controlled using a face tracking algorithm, and an end effector consisting of a thermal camera, smartphone, and chatbot. The goal is to develop a functioning solution that performs the above tasks. In addition, technical challenges encountered and their engineering solutions will be presented, and recommendations will be made for enhancements that could be incorporated when approaching commercialization.


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Split-Treatment Analysis to Rank Heterogeneous Causal Effects for Prospective Interventions

Nov 11, 2020
Yanbo Xu, Divyat Mahajan, Liz Manrao, Amit Sharma, Emre Kiciman

For many kinds of interventions, such as a new advertisement, marketing intervention, or feature recommendation, it is important to target a specific subset of people for maximizing its benefits at minimum cost or potential harm. However, a key challenge is that no data is available about the effect of such a prospective intervention since it has not been deployed yet. In this work, we propose a split-treatment analysis that ranks the individuals most likely to be positively affected by a prospective intervention using past observational data. Unlike standard causal inference methods, the split-treatment method does not need any observations of the target treatments themselves. Instead it relies on observations of a proxy treatment that is caused by the target treatment. Under reasonable assumptions, we show that the ranking of heterogeneous causal effect based on the proxy treatment is the same as the ranking based on the target treatment's effect. In the absence of any interventional data for cross-validation, Split-Treatment uses sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounding to select model parameters. We apply Split-Treatment to both a simulated data and a large-scale, real-world targeting task and validate our discovered rankings via a randomized experiment for the latter.

* To be published in WSDM 

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Statistical Inference for Online Decision Making via Stochastic Gradient Descent

Oct 14, 2020
Haoyu Chen, Wenbin Lu, Rui Song

Online decision making aims to learn the optimal decision rule by making personalized decisions and updating the decision rule recursively. It has become easier than before with the help of big data, but new challenges also come along. Since the decision rule should be updated once per step, an offline update which uses all the historical data is inefficient in computation and storage. To this end, we propose a completely online algorithm that can make decisions and update the decision rule online via stochastic gradient descent. It is not only efficient but also supports all kinds of parametric reward models. Focusing on the statistical inference of online decision making, we establish the asymptotic normality of the parameter estimator produced by our algorithm and the online inverse probability weighted value estimator we used to estimate the optimal value. Online plugin estimators for the variance of the parameter and value estimators are also provided and shown to be consistent, so that interval estimation and hypothesis test are possible using our method. The proposed algorithm and theoretical results are tested by simulations and a real data application to news article recommendation.

* Accepted by the Journal of the American Statistical Association 

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Towards Multimodal MIR: Predicting individual differences from music-induced movement

Jul 21, 2020
Yudhik Agrawal, Samyak Jain, Emily Carlson, Petri Toiviainen, Vinoo Alluri

As the field of Music Information Retrieval grows, it is important to take into consideration the multi-modality of music and how aspects of musical engagement such as movement and gesture might be taken into account. Bodily movement is universally associated with music and reflective of important individual features related to music preference such as personality, mood, and empathy. Future multimodal MIR systems may benefit from taking these aspects into account. The current study addresses this by identifying individual differences, specifically Big Five personality traits, and scores on the Empathy and Systemizing Quotients (EQ/SQ) from participants' free dance movements. Our model successfully explored the unseen space for personality as well as EQ, SQ, which has not previously been accomplished for the latter. R2 scores for personality, EQ, and SQ were 76.3%, 77.1%, and 86.7% respectively. As a follow-up, we investigated which bodily joints were most important in defining these traits. We discuss how further research may explore how the mapping of these traits to movement patterns can be used to build a more personalized, multi-modal recommendation system, as well as potential therapeutic applications.

* Appearing in the proceedings of the 21st International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2020) (camera-ready version) 

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Extraction and Analysis of Fictional Character Networks: A Survey

Jul 05, 2019
Vincent Labatut, Xavier Bost

A character network is a graph extracted from a narrative, in which vertices represent characters and edges correspond to interactions between them. A number of narrative-related problems can be addressed automatically through the analysis of character networks, such as summarization, classification, or role detection. Character networks are particularly relevant when considering works of fictions (e.g. novels, plays, movies, TV series), as their exploitation allows developing information retrieval and recommendation systems. However, works of fiction possess specific properties making these tasks harder. This survey aims at presenting and organizing the scientific literature related to the extraction of character networks from works of fiction, as well as their analysis. We first describe the extraction process in a generic way, and explain how its constituting steps are implemented in practice, depending on the medium of the narrative, the goal of the network analysis, and other factors. We then review the descriptive tools used to characterize character networks, with a focus on the way they are interpreted in this context. We illustrate the relevance of character networks by also providing a review of applications derived from their analysis. Finally, we identify the limitations of the existing approaches, and the most promising perspectives.

* ACM Computing Surveys, Association for Computing Machinery, In press 

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