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A Deep Learning Approach to Behavior-Based Learner Modeling

Jan 23, 2020
Yuwei Tu, Weiyu Chen, Christopher G. Brinton

The increasing popularity of e-learning has created demand for improving online education through techniques such as predictive analytics and content recommendations. In this paper, we study learner outcome predictions, i.e., predictions of how they will perform at the end of a course. We propose a novel Two Branch Decision Network for performance prediction that incorporates two important factors: how learners progress through the course and how the content progresses through the course. We combine clickstream features which log every action the learner takes while learning, and textual features which are generated through pre-trained GloVe word embeddings. To assess the performance of our proposed network, we collect data from a short online course designed for corporate training and evaluate both neural network and non-neural network based algorithms on it. Our proposed algorithm achieves 95.7% accuracy and 0.958 AUC score, which outperforms all other models. The results also indicate the combination of behavior features and text features are more predictive than behavior features only and neural network models are powerful in capturing the joint relationship between user behavior and course content.

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Deep Time-Stream Framework for Click-Through Rate Prediction by Tracking Interest Evolution

Jan 08, 2020
Shu-Ting Shi, Wenhao Zheng, Jun Tang, Qing-Guo Chen, Yao Hu, Jianke Zhu, Ming Li

Click-through rate (CTR) prediction is an essential task in industrial applications such as video recommendation. Recently, deep learning models have been proposed to learn the representation of users' overall interests, while ignoring the fact that interests may dynamically change over time. We argue that it is necessary to consider the continuous-time information in CTR models to track user interest trend from rich historical behaviors. In this paper, we propose a novel Deep Time-Stream framework (DTS) which introduces the time information by an ordinary differential equations (ODE). DTS continuously models the evolution of interests using a neural network, and thus is able to tackle the challenge of dynamically representing users' interests based on their historical behaviors. In addition, our framework can be seamlessly applied to any existing deep CTR models by leveraging the additional Time-Stream Module, while no changes are made to the original CTR models. Experiments on public dataset as well as real industry dataset with billions of samples demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed approaches, which achieve superior performance compared with existing methods.

* AAAI 2020 
* 8 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1809.03672 by other authors 

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A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

Aug 07, 2019
Yolanda Gil, Bart Selman

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.

* A Computing Community Consortium (CCC) workshop report, 109 pages 

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Prediction of Soil Moisture Content Based On Satellite Data and Sequence-to-Sequence Networks

Jun 05, 2019
Natalia Efremova, Dmitry Zausaev, Gleb Antipov

The main objective of this study is to combine remote sensing and machine learning to detect soil moisture content. Growing population and food consumption has led to the need to improve agricultural yield and to reduce wastage of natural resources. In this paper, we propose a neural network architecture, based on recent work by the research community, that can make a strong social impact and aid United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The main aims here are to: improve efficiency of water usage; reduce dependence on irrigation; increase overall crop yield; minimise risk of crop loss due to drought and extreme weather conditions. We achieve this by applying satellite imagery, crop segmentation, soil classification and NDVI and soil moisture prediction on satellite data, ground truth and climate data records. By applying machine learning to sensor data and ground data, farm management systems can evolve into a real time AI enabled platform that can provide actionable recommendations and decision support tools to the farmers.

* Presented on NeurIPS 2018 WiML workshop 

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Bayesian Optimization for Policy Search via Online-Offline Experimentation

Apr 29, 2019
Benjamin Letham, Eytan Bakshy

Online field experiments are the gold-standard way of evaluating changes to real-world interactive machine learning systems. Yet our ability to explore complex, multi-dimensional policy spaces - such as those found in recommendation and ranking problems - is often constrained by the limited number of experiments that can be run simultaneously. To alleviate these constraints, we augment online experiments with an offline simulator and apply multi-task Bayesian optimization to tune live machine learning systems. We describe practical issues that arise in these types of applications, including biases that arise from using a simulator and assumptions for the multi-task kernel. We measure empirical learning curves which show substantial gains from including data from biased offline experiments, and show how these learning curves are consistent with theoretical results for multi-task Gaussian process generalization. We find that improved kernel inference is a significant driver of multi-task generalization. Finally, we show several examples of Bayesian optimization efficiently tuning a live machine learning system by combining offline and online experiments.

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Designing an Effective Metric Learning Pipeline for Speaker Diarization

Nov 01, 2018
Vivek Sivaraman Narayanaswamy, Jayaraman J. Thiagarajan, Huan Song, Andreas Spanias

State-of-the-art speaker diarization systems utilize knowledge from external data, in the form of a pre-trained distance metric, to effectively determine relative speaker identities to unseen data. However, much of recent focus has been on choosing the appropriate feature extractor, ranging from pre-trained $i-$vectors to representations learned via different sequence modeling architectures (e.g. 1D-CNNs, LSTMs, attention models), while adopting off-the-shelf metric learning solutions. In this paper, we argue that, regardless of the feature extractor, it is crucial to carefully design a metric learning pipeline, namely the loss function, the sampling strategy and the discrimnative margin parameter, for building robust diarization systems. Furthermore, we propose to adopt a fine-grained validation process to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the generalization power of metric learning pipelines. To this end, we measure diarization performance across different language speakers, and variations in the number of speakers in a recording. Using empirical studies, we provide interesting insights into the effectiveness of different design choices and make recommendations.

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Modelling User's Theory of AI's Mind in Interactive Intelligent Systems

Sep 08, 2018
Tomi Peltola, Mustafa Mert Çelikok, Pedram Daee, Samuel Kaski

Many interactive intelligent systems, such as recommendation and information retrieval systems, treat users as a passive data source. Yet, users form mental models of systems and instead of passively providing feedback to the queries of the system, they will strategically plan their actions within the constraints of the mental model to steer the system and achieve their goals faster. We propose to explicitly account for the user's theory of the AI's mind in the user model: the intelligent system has a model of the user having a model of the intelligent system. We study a case where the system is a contextual bandit and the user model is a Markov decision process that plans based on a simpler model of the bandit. Inference in the model can be reduced to probabilistic inverse reinforcement learning, with the nested bandit model defining the transition dynamics, and is implemented using probabilistic programming. Our results show that improved performance is achieved if users can form accurate mental models that the system can capture, implying predictability of the interactive intelligent system is important not only for the user experience but also for the design of the system's statistical models.

* 18 pages, 9 figures 

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Efficiently Learning Mixtures of Mallows Models

Aug 17, 2018
Allen Liu, Ankur Moitra

Mixtures of Mallows models are a popular generative model for ranking data coming from a heterogeneous population. They have a variety of applications including social choice, recommendation systems and natural language processing. Here we give the first polynomial time algorithm for provably learning the parameters of a mixture of Mallows models with any constant number of components. Prior to our work, only the two component case had been settled. Our analysis revolves around a determinantal identity of Zagier which was proven in the context of mathematical physics, which we use to show polynomial identifiability and ultimately to construct test functions to peel off one component at a time. To complement our upper bounds, we show information-theoretic lower bounds on the sample complexity as well as lower bounds against restricted families of algorithms that make only local queries. Together, these results demonstrate various impediments to improving the dependence on the number of components. They also motivate the study of learning mixtures of Mallows models from the perspective of beyond worst-case analysis. In this direction, we show that when the scaling parameters of the Mallows models have separation, there are much faster learning algorithms.

* FOCS 2018 
* 35 pages 

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Hierarchical Compound Poisson Factorization

May 26, 2016
Mehmet E. Basbug, Barbara E. Engelhardt

Non-negative matrix factorization models based on a hierarchical Gamma-Poisson structure capture user and item behavior effectively in extremely sparse data sets, making them the ideal choice for collaborative filtering applications. Hierarchical Poisson factorization (HPF) in particular has proved successful for scalable recommendation systems with extreme sparsity. HPF, however, suffers from a tight coupling of sparsity model (absence of a rating) and response model (the value of the rating), which limits the expressiveness of the latter. Here, we introduce hierarchical compound Poisson factorization (HCPF) that has the favorable Gamma-Poisson structure and scalability of HPF to high-dimensional extremely sparse matrices. More importantly, HCPF decouples the sparsity model from the response model, allowing us to choose the most suitable distribution for the response. HCPF can capture binary, non-negative discrete, non-negative continuous, and zero-inflated continuous responses. We compare HCPF with HPF on nine discrete and three continuous data sets and conclude that HCPF captures the relationship between sparsity and response better than HPF.

* Will appear on Proceedings of the 33 rd International Conference on Machine Learning, New York, NY, USA, 2016. JMLR: W&CP volume 48 

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