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Bayesian Low-rank Matrix Completion with Dual-graph Embedding: Prior Analysis and Tuning-free Inference

Mar 18, 2022
Yangge Chen, Lei Cheng, Yik-Chung Wu

Recently, there is a revival of interest in low-rank matrix completion-based unsupervised learning through the lens of dual-graph regularization, which has significantly improved the performance of multidisciplinary machine learning tasks such as recommendation systems, genotype imputation and image inpainting. While the dual-graph regularization contributes a major part of the success, computational costly hyper-parameter tunning is usually involved. To circumvent such a drawback and improve the completion performance, we propose a novel Bayesian learning algorithm that automatically learns the hyper-parameters associated with dual-graph regularization, and at the same time, guarantees the low-rankness of matrix completion. Notably, a novel prior is devised to promote the low-rankness of the matrix and encode the dual-graph information simultaneously, which is more challenging than the single-graph counterpart. A nontrivial conditional conjugacy between the proposed priors and likelihood function is then explored such that an efficient algorithm is derived under variational inference framework. Extensive experiments using synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of the proposed learning algorithm for various data analysis tasks.

* 30 pages, 14 figures 

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Visual Object Tracking with Discriminative Filters and Siamese Networks: A Survey and Outlook

Dec 06, 2021
Sajid Javed, Martin Danelljan, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Muhammad Haris Khan, Michael Felsberg, Jiri Matas

Accurate and robust visual object tracking is one of the most challenging and fundamental computer vision problems. It entails estimating the trajectory of the target in an image sequence, given only its initial location, and segmentation, or its rough approximation in the form of a bounding box. Discriminative Correlation Filters (DCFs) and deep Siamese Networks (SNs) have emerged as dominating tracking paradigms, which have led to significant progress. Following the rapid evolution of visual object tracking in the last decade, this survey presents a systematic and thorough review of more than 90 DCFs and Siamese trackers, based on results in nine tracking benchmarks. First, we present the background theory of both the DCF and Siamese tracking core formulations. Then, we distinguish and comprehensively review the shared as well as specific open research challenges in both these tracking paradigms. Furthermore, we thoroughly analyze the performance of DCF and Siamese trackers on nine benchmarks, covering different experimental aspects of visual tracking: datasets, evaluation metrics, performance, and speed comparisons. We finish the survey by presenting recommendations and suggestions for distinguished open challenges based on our analysis.

* Tracking Survey 

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Feature selection revisited in the single-cell era

Oct 27, 2021
Pengyi Yang, Hao Huang, Chunlei Liu

Feature selection techniques are essential for high-dimensional data analysis. In the last two decades, their popularity has been fuelled by the increasing availability of high-throughput biomolecular data where high-dimensionality is a common data property. Recent advances in biotechnologies enable global profiling of various molecular and cellular features at single-cell resolution, resulting in large-scale datasets with increased complexity. These technological developments have led to a resurgence in feature selection research and application in the single-cell field. Here, we revisit feature selection techniques and summarise recent developments. We review their versatile application to a range of single-cell data types including those generated from traditional cytometry and imaging technologies and the latest array of single-cell omics technologies. We highlight some of the challenges and future directions on which feature selection could have a significant impact. Finally, we consider the scalability and make general recommendations on the utility of each type of feature selection method. We hope this review serves as a reference point to stimulate future research and application of feature selection in the single-cell era.


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A Recipe for Social Media Analysis

Jun 14, 2021
Shahid Alam, Juvariya Khan

The Ubiquitous nature of smartphones has significantly increased the use of social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, TikTok, and LinkedIn, etc., among the public, government, and businesses. Facebook generated ~70 billion USD in 2019 in advertisement revenues alone, a ~27% increase from the previous year. Social media has also played a strong role in outbreaks of social protests responsible for political changes in different countries. As we can see from the above examples, social media plays a big role in business intelligence and international politics. In this paper, we present and discuss a high-level functional intelligence model (recipe) of Social Media Analysis (SMA). This model synthesizes the input data and uses operational intelligence to provide actionable recommendations. In addition, it also matches the synthesized function of the experiences and learning gained from the environment. The SMA model presented is independent of the application domain, and can be applied to different domains, such as Education, Healthcare and Government, etc. Finally, we also present some of the challenges faced by SMA and how the SMA model presented in this paper solves them.


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Leveraging Benchmarking Data for Informed One-Shot Dynamic Algorithm Selection

Feb 12, 2021
Furong Ye, Carola Doerr, Thomas Bäck

A key challenge in the application of evolutionary algorithms in practice is the selection of an algorithm instance that best suits the problem at hand. What complicates this decision further is that different algorithms may be best suited for different stages of the optimization process. Dynamic algorithm selection and configuration are therefore well-researched topics in evolutionary computation. However, while hyper-heuristics and parameter control studies typically assume a setting in which the algorithm needs to be chosen while running the algorithms, without prior information, AutoML approaches such as hyper-parameter tuning and automated algorithm configuration assume the possibility of evaluating different configurations before making a final recommendation. In practice, however, we are often in a middle-ground between these two settings, where we need to decide on the algorithm instance before the run ("oneshot" setting), but where we have (possibly lots of) data available on which we can base an informed decision. We analyze in this work how such prior performance data can be used to infer informed dynamic algorithm selection schemes for the solution of pseudo-Boolean optimization problems. Our specific use-case considers a family of genetic algorithms.

* Submitted for review to GECCO'21 

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Bayesian Optimization for Selecting Efficient Machine Learning Models

Aug 02, 2020
Lidan Wang, Franck Dernoncourt, Trung Bui

The performance of many machine learning models depends on their hyper-parameter settings. Bayesian Optimization has become a successful tool for hyper-parameter optimization of machine learning algorithms, which aims to identify optimal hyper-parameters during an iterative sequential process. However, most of the Bayesian Optimization algorithms are designed to select models for effectiveness only and ignore the important issue of model training efficiency. Given that both model effectiveness and training time are important for real-world applications, models selected for effectiveness may not meet the strict training time requirements necessary to deploy in a production environment. In this work, we present a unified Bayesian Optimization framework for jointly optimizing models for both prediction effectiveness and training efficiency. We propose an objective that captures the tradeoff between these two metrics and demonstrate how we can jointly optimize them in a principled Bayesian Optimization framework. Experiments on model selection for recommendation tasks indicate models selected this way significantly improves model training efficiency while maintaining strong effectiveness as compared to state-of-the-art Bayesian Optimization algorithms.

* Published at CIKM MoST-Rec 2019 

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PsychFM: Predicting your next gamble

Jul 03, 2020
Prakash Rajan, Krishna P. Miyapuram

There is a sudden surge to model human behavior due to its vast and diverse applications which includes modeling public policies, economic behavior and consumer behavior. Most of the human behavior itself can be modeled into a choice prediction problem. Prospect theory is a theoretical model that tries to explain the anomalies in choice prediction. These theories perform well in terms of explaining the anomalies but they lack precision. Since the behavior is person dependent, there is a need to build a model that predicts choices on a per-person basis. Looking on at the average persons choice may not necessarily throw light on a particular person's choice. Modeling the gambling problem on a per person basis will help in recommendation systems and related areas. A novel hybrid model namely psychological factorisation machine ( PsychFM ) has been proposed that involves concepts from machine learning as well as psychological theories. It outperforms the popular existing models namely random forest and factorisation machines for the benchmark dataset CPC-18. Finally,the efficacy of the proposed hybrid model has been verified by comparing with the existing models.

* To be published in International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 2020 conference 

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DisCoveR: Accurate & Efficient Discovery of Declarative Process Models

May 20, 2020
Christoffer Olling Back, Tijs Slaats, Thomas Troels Hildebrandt, Morten Marquard

Declarative process modeling formalisms - which capture high-level process constraints - have seen growing interest, especially for modeling flexible processes. This paper presents DisCoveR, an extremely efficient and accurate declarative miner for learning Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs from event logs. We precisely formalize the algorithm, describe a highly efficient bit vector implementation and rigorously evaluate performance against two other declarative miners, representing the state-of-the-art in Declare and DCR Graphs mining. DisCoveR outperforms each of these w.r.t. a binary classification task, achieving an average accuracy of 96.2% in the Process Discovery Contest 2019. Due to its linear time complexity, DisCoveR also achieves run-times 1-2 orders of magnitude below its declarative counterparts. Finally, we show how the miner has been integrated in a state-of-the-art declarative process modeling framework as a model recommendation tool, discuss how discovery can play an integral part of the modeling task and report on how the integration has improved the modeling experience of end-users.

* Author's original version 

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Context-Aware Parse Trees

Mar 24, 2020
Fangke Ye, Shengtian Zhou, Anand Venkat, Ryan Marcus, Paul Petersen, Jesmin Jahan Tithi, Tim Mattson, Tim Kraska, Pradeep Dubey, Vivek Sarkar, Justin Gottschlich

The simplified parse tree (SPT) presented in Aroma, a state-of-the-art code recommendation system, is a tree-structured representation used to infer code semantics by capturing program \emph{structure} rather than program \emph{syntax}. This is a departure from the classical abstract syntax tree, which is principally driven by programming language syntax. While we believe a semantics-driven representation is desirable, the specifics of an SPT's construction can impact its performance. We analyze these nuances and present a new tree structure, heavily influenced by Aroma's SPT, called a \emph{context-aware parse tree} (CAPT). CAPT enhances SPT by providing a richer level of semantic representation. Specifically, CAPT provides additional binding support for language-specific techniques for adding semantically-salient features, and language-agnostic techniques for removing syntactically-present but semantically-irrelevant features. Our research quantitatively demonstrates the value of our proposed semantically-salient features, enabling a specific CAPT configuration to be 39\% more accurate than SPT across the 48,610 programs we analyzed.


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I Know Where You Are Coming From: On the Impact of Social Media Sources on AI Model Performance

Feb 05, 2020
Qi Yang, Aleksandr Farseev, Andrey Filchenkov

Nowadays, social networks play a crucial role in human everyday life and no longer purely associated with spare time spending. In fact, instant communication with friends and colleagues has become an essential component of our daily interaction giving a raise of multiple new social network types emergence. By participating in such networks, individuals generate a multitude of data points that describe their activities from different perspectives and, for example, can be further used for applications such as personalized recommendation or user profiling. However, the impact of the different social media networks on machine learning model performance has not been studied comprehensively yet. Particularly, the literature on modeling multi-modal data from multiple social networks is relatively sparse, which had inspired us to take a deeper dive into the topic in this preliminary study. Specifically, in this work, we will study the performance of different machine learning models when being learned on multi-modal data from different social networks. Our initial experimental results reveal that social network choice impacts the performance and the proper selection of data source is crucial.

* AAAI-20 

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