Suppose we have a black-box function (e.g., deep neural network) that takes an image as input and outputs a value that indicates preference. How can we retrieve optimal images with respect to this function from an external database on the Internet? Standard retrieval problems in the literature (e.g., item recommendations) assume that an algorithm has full access to the set of items. In other words, such algorithms are designed for service providers. In this paper, we consider the retrieval problem under different assumptions. Specifically, we consider how users with limited access to an image database can retrieve images using their own black-box functions. This formulation enables a flexible and finer-grained image search defined by each user. We assume the user can access the database through a search query with tight API limits. Therefore, a user needs to efficiently retrieve optimal images in terms of the number of queries. We propose an efficient retrieval algorithm Tiara for this problem. In the experiments, we confirm that our proposed method performs better than several baselines under various settings.
Social Justice oriented Engineering Education frameworks have been developed to help guide engineering students' decisions about which projects will genuinely address human needs to create a better and more equitable society. In this paper, we explore the role such theories might play in the field of AI-HRI, consider the extent to which our community is (or is not) aligned with these recommendations, and envision a future in which our research community takes guidance from these theories. In particular, we analyze recent AI-HRI (through analysis of 2020 AI-HRI papers) and consider possible futures of AI-HRI (through a speculative ethics exercise). Both activities are guided through the lens of the Engineering for Social Justice (E4SJ) framework, which centers contextual listening and enhancement of human capabilities. Our analysis suggests that current AI-HRI research is not well aligned with the guiding principles of Engineering for Social Justice, and as such, does not obviously meet the needs of the communities we could be helping most. As such, we suggest that motivating future work through the E4SJ framework could help to ensure that we as researchers are developing technologies that will actually lead to a more equitable world.
In this paper, we propose a novel model named DemiNet (short for DEpendency-Aware Multi-Interest Network}) to address the above two issues. To be specific, we first consider various dependency types between item nodes and perform dependency-aware heterogeneous attention for denoising and obtaining accurate sequence item representations. Secondly, for multiple interests extraction, multi-head attention is conducted on top of the graph embedding. To filter out noisy inter-item correlations and enhance the robustness of extracted interests, self-supervised interest learning is introduced to the above two steps. Thirdly, to aggregate the multiple interests, interest experts corresponding to different interest routes give rating scores respectively, while a specialized network assigns the confidence of each score. Experimental results on three real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed DemiNet significantly improves the overall recommendation performance over several state-of-the-art baselines. Further studies verify the efficacy and interpretability benefits brought from the fine-grained user interest modeling.
Most Artificial Intelligence applications are based on supervised machine learning (ML), which ultimately grounds on manually annotated data. The annotation process is often performed in terms of a majority vote and this has been proved to be often problematic, as highlighted by recent studies on the evaluation of ML models. In this article we describe and advocate for a different paradigm, which we call data perspectivism, which moves away from traditional gold standard datasets, towards the adoption of methods that integrate the opinions and perspectives of the human subjects involved in the knowledge representation step of ML processes. Drawing on previous works which inspired our proposal we describe the potential of our proposal for not only the more subjective tasks (e.g. those related to human language) but also to tasks commonly understood as objective (e.g. medical decision making), and present the main advantages of adopting a perspectivist stance in ML, as well as possible disadvantages, and various ways in which such a stance can be implemented in practice. Finally, we share a set of recommendations and outline a research agenda to advance the perspectivist stance in ML.
Expert systems have been used to enable computers to make recommendations and decisions. This paper presents the use of a machine learning trained expert system (MLES) for phishing site detection and fake news detection. Both topics share a similar goal: to design a rule-fact network that allows a computer to make explainable decisions like domain experts in each respective area. The phishing website detection study uses a MLES to detect potential phishing websites by analyzing site properties (like URL length and expiration time). The fake news detection study uses a MLES rule-fact network to gauge news story truthfulness based on factors such as emotion, the speaker's political affiliation status, and job. The two studies use different MLES network implementations, which are presented and compared herein. The fake news study utilized a more linear design while the phishing project utilized a more complex connection structure. Both networks' inputs are based on commonly available data sets.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) use graph convolutions to exploit network invariances and learn meaningful features from network data. However, on large-scale graphs convolutions incur in high computational cost, leading to scalability limitations. Leveraging the graphon -- the limit object of a graph -- in this paper we consider the problem of learning a graphon neural network (WNN) -- the limit object of a GNN -- by training GNNs on graphs sampled Bernoulli from the graphon. Under smoothness conditions, we show that: (i) the expected distance between the learning steps on the GNN and on the WNN decreases asymptotically with the size of the graph, and (ii) when training on a sequence of growing graphs, gradient descent follows the learning direction of the WNN. Inspired by these results, we propose a novel algorithm to learn GNNs on large-scale graphs that, starting from a moderate number of nodes, successively increases the size of the graph during training. This algorithm is benchmarked on both a recommendation system and a decentralized control problem where it is shown to retain comparable performance, to its large-scale counterpart, at a reduced computational cost.
Recent years have seen a rise in interest in terms of using machine learning, particularly reinforcement learning (RL), for production scheduling problems of varying degrees of complexity. The general approach is to break down the scheduling problem into a Markov Decision Process (MDP), whereupon a simulation implementing the MDP is used to train an RL agent. Since existing studies rely on (sometimes) complex simulations for which the code is unavailable, the experiments presented are hard, or, in the case of stochastic environments, impossible to reproduce accurately. Furthermore, there is a vast array of RL designs to choose from. To make RL methods widely applicable in production scheduling and work out their strength for the industry, the standardization of model descriptions - both production setup and RL design - and validation scheme are a prerequisite. Our contribution is threefold: First, we standardize the description of production setups used in RL studies based on established nomenclature. Secondly, we classify RL design choices from existing publications. Lastly, we propose recommendations for a validation scheme focusing on reproducibility and sufficient benchmarking.
Optical Music Recognition (OMR) is concerned with transcribing sheet music into a machine-readable format. The transcribed copy should allow musicians to compose, play and edit music by taking a picture of a music sheet. Complete transcription of sheet music would also enable more efficient archival. OMR facilitates examining sheet music statistically or searching for patterns of notations, thus helping use cases in digital musicology too. Recently, there has been a shift in OMR from using conventional computer vision techniques towards a deep learning approach. In this paper, we review relevant works in OMR, including fundamental methods and significant outcomes, and highlight different stages of the OMR pipeline. These stages often lack standard input and output representation and standardised evaluation. Therefore, comparing different approaches and evaluating the impact of different processing methods can become rather complex. This paper provides recommendations for future work, addressing some of the highlighted issues and represents a position in furthering this important field of research.
Phase I dose-finding trials are increasingly challenging as the relationship between efficacy and toxicity of new compounds (or combination of them) becomes more complex. Despite this, most commonly used methods in practice focus on identifying a Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) by learning only from toxicity events. We present a novel adaptive clinical trial methodology, called Safe Efficacy Exploration Dose Allocation (SEEDA), that aims at maximizing the cumulative efficacies while satisfying the toxicity safety constraint with high probability. We evaluate performance objectives that have operational meanings in practical clinical trials, including cumulative efficacy, recommendation/allocation success probabilities, toxicity violation probability, and sample efficiency. An extended SEEDA-Plateau algorithm that is tailored for the increase-then-plateau efficacy behavior of molecularly targeted agents (MTA) is also presented. Through numerical experiments using both synthetic and real-world datasets, we show that SEEDA outperforms state-of-the-art clinical trial designs by finding the optimal dose with higher success rate and fewer patients.