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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

A Survey of Hierarchy Identification in Social Networks

Dec 20, 2018
Denys Katerenchuk

Humans are social by nature. Throughout history, people have formed communities and built relationships. Most relationships with coworkers, friends, and family are developed during face-to-face interactions. These relationships are established through explicit means of communications such as words and implicit such as intonation, body language, etc. By analyzing human interactions we can derive information about the relationships and influence among conversation participants. However, with the development of the Internet, people started to communicate through text in online social networks. Interestingly, they brought their communicational habits to the Internet. Many social network users form relationships with each other and establish communities with leaders and followers. Recognizing these hierarchical relationships is an important task because it will help to understand social networks and predict future trends, improve recommendations, better target advertisement, and improve national security by identifying leaders of anonymous terror groups. In this work, I provide an overview of current research in this area and present the state-of-the-art approaches to deal with the problem of identifying hierarchical relationships in social networks.

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The real-time reactive surgical case sequencing problem

Aug 30, 2018
Belinda Spratt, Erhan Kozan

In this paper, the multiple operating room (OR) surgical case sequencing problem (SCSP) is addressed. The objective is to maximise total OR utilisation during standard opening hours. The work here is based on a case study of a large Australian public hospital with long surgical waiting lists and high levels of non-elective demand. Due to the complexity of the SCSP and the size of the instances considered herein, heuristic techniques are required to solve the problem. Constructive heuristics are presented based on both a modified block scheduling policy and an open scheduling policy. A number of real-time reactive strategies are presented that can be used to maintain schedule feasibility in the case of disruptions. Results of computational experiments show that the approach presented in this paper can be used to maintain schedule feasibility in real-time, whilst increasing OT utilisation and throughput, and reducing the waiting time of non-elective patients. The framework presented here is applicable to the real-life scheduling of OT departments, and recommendations have been provided regarding implementation of the approach.

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Differentiable Submodular Maximization

Jun 14, 2018
Sebastian Tschiatschek, Aytunc Sahin, Andreas Krause

We consider learning of submodular functions from data. These functions are important in machine learning and have a wide range of applications, e.g. data summarization, feature selection and active learning. Despite their combinatorial nature, submodular functions can be maximized approximately with strong theoretical guarantees in polynomial time. Typically, learning the submodular function and optimization of that function are treated separately, i.e. the function is first learned using a proxy objective and subsequently maximized. In contrast, we show how to perform learning and optimization jointly. By interpreting the output of greedy maximization algorithms as distributions over sequences of items and smoothening these distributions, we obtain a differentiable objective. In this way, we can differentiate through the maximization algorithms and optimize the model to work well with the optimization algorithm. We theoretically characterize the error made by our approach, yielding insights into the tradeoff of smoothness and accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for jointly learning and optimizing on synthetic maximum cut data, and on real world applications such as product recommendation and image collection summarization.

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Estimation and Inference of Heterogeneous Treatment Effects using Random Forests

Jul 10, 2017
Stefan Wager, Susan Athey

Many scientific and engineering challenges -- ranging from personalized medicine to customized marketing recommendations -- require an understanding of treatment effect heterogeneity. In this paper, we develop a non-parametric causal forest for estimating heterogeneous treatment effects that extends Breiman's widely used random forest algorithm. In the potential outcomes framework with unconfoundedness, we show that causal forests are pointwise consistent for the true treatment effect, and have an asymptotically Gaussian and centered sampling distribution. We also discuss a practical method for constructing asymptotic confidence intervals for the true treatment effect that are centered at the causal forest estimates. Our theoretical results rely on a generic Gaussian theory for a large family of random forest algorithms. To our knowledge, this is the first set of results that allows any type of random forest, including classification and regression forests, to be used for provably valid statistical inference. In experiments, we find causal forests to be substantially more powerful than classical methods based on nearest-neighbor matching, especially in the presence of irrelevant covariates.

* To appear in the Journal of the American Statistical Association. Part of the results developed in this paper were made available as an earlier technical report "Asymptotic Theory for Random Forests", available at (arXiv:1405.0352) 

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Provably Optimal Algorithms for Generalized Linear Contextual Bandits

Jun 18, 2017
Lihong Li, Yu Lu, Dengyong Zhou

Contextual bandits are widely used in Internet services from news recommendation to advertising, and to Web search. Generalized linear models (logistical regression in particular) have demonstrated stronger performance than linear models in many applications where rewards are binary. However, most theoretical analyses on contextual bandits so far are on linear bandits. In this work, we propose an upper confidence bound based algorithm for generalized linear contextual bandits, which achieves an $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{dT})$ regret over $T$ rounds with $d$ dimensional feature vectors. This regret matches the minimax lower bound, up to logarithmic terms, and improves on the best previous result by a $\sqrt{d}$ factor, assuming the number of arms is fixed. A key component in our analysis is to establish a new, sharp finite-sample confidence bound for maximum-likelihood estimates in generalized linear models, which may be of independent interest. We also analyze a simpler upper confidence bound algorithm, which is useful in practice, and prove it to have optimal regret for certain cases.

* Published at ICML 2017 

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Fast k-NN search

Aug 19, 2016
Ville Hyvönen, Teemu Pitkänen, Sotiris Tasoulis, Elias Jääsaari, Risto Tuomainen, Liang Wang, Jukka Corander, Teemu Roos

Efficient index structures for fast approximate nearest neighbor queries are required in many applications such as recommendation systems. In high-dimensional spaces, many conventional methods suffer from excessive usage of memory and slow response times. We propose a method where multiple random projection trees are combined by a novel voting scheme. The key idea is to exploit the redundancy in a large number of candidate sets obtained by independently generated random projections in order to reduce the number of expensive exact distance evaluations. The method is straightforward to implement using sparse projections which leads to a reduced memory footprint and fast index construction. Furthermore, it enables grouping of the required computations into big matrix multiplications, which leads to additional savings due to cache effects and low-level parallelization. We demonstrate by extensive experiments on a wide variety of data sets that the method is faster than existing partitioning tree or hashing based approaches, making it the fastest available technique on high accuracy levels.

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Topic Analysis for Text with Side Data

Mar 01, 2022
Biyi Fang, Kripa Rajshekhar, Diego Klabjan

Although latent factor models (e.g., matrix factorization) obtain good performance in predictions, they suffer from several problems including cold-start, non-transparency, and suboptimal recommendations. In this paper, we employ text with side data to tackle these limitations. We introduce a hybrid generative probabilistic model that combines a neural network with a latent topic model, which is a four-level hierarchical Bayesian model. In the model, each document is modeled as a finite mixture over an underlying set of topics and each topic is modeled as an infinite mixture over an underlying set of topic probabilities. Furthermore, each topic probability is modeled as a finite mixture over side data. In the context of text, the neural network provides an overview distribution about side data for the corresponding text, which is the prior distribution in LDA to help perform topic grouping. The approach is evaluated on several different datasets, where the model is shown to outperform standard LDA and Dirichlet-multinomial regression (DMR) in terms of topic grouping, model perplexity, classification and comment generation.

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Bias in Automated Speaker Recognition

Jan 24, 2022
Wiebke Toussaint, Aaron Ding

Automated speaker recognition uses data processing to identify speakers by their voice. Today, automated speaker recognition technologies are deployed on billions of smart devices and in services such as call centres. Despite their wide-scale deployment and known sources of bias in face recognition and natural language processing, bias in automated speaker recognition has not been studied systematically. We present an in-depth empirical and analytical study of bias in the machine learning development workflow of speaker verification, a voice biometric and core task in automated speaker recognition. Drawing on an established framework for understanding sources of harm in machine learning, we show that bias exists at every development stage in the well-known VoxCeleb Speaker Recognition Challenge, including model building, implementation, and data generation. Most affected are female speakers and non-US nationalities, who experience significant performance degradation. Leveraging the insights from our findings, we make practical recommendations for mitigating bias in automated speaker recognition, and outline future research directions.

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Accelerate Model Parallel Training by Using Efficient Graph Traversal Order in Device Placement

Jan 21, 2022
Tianze Wang, Amir H. Payberah, Desta Haileselassie Hagos, Vladimir Vlassov

Modern neural networks require long training to reach decent performance on massive datasets. One common approach to speed up training is model parallelization, where large neural networks are split across multiple devices. However, different device placements of the same neural network lead to different training times. Most of the existing device placement solutions treat the problem as sequential decision-making by traversing neural network graphs and assigning their neurons to different devices. This work studies the impact of graph traversal order on device placement. In particular, we empirically study how different graph traversal order leads to different device placement, which in turn affects the training execution time. Our experiment results show that the best graph traversal order depends on the type of neural networks and their computation graphs features. In this work, we also provide recommendations on choosing graph traversal order in device placement for various neural network families to improve the training time in model parallelization.

* This work has been submitted for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible 

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From Psychological Curiosity to Artificial Curiosity: Curiosity-Driven Learning in Artificial Intelligence Tasks

Jan 20, 2022
Chenyu Sun, Hangwei Qian, Chunyan Miao

Psychological curiosity plays a significant role in human intelligence to enhance learning through exploration and information acquisition. In the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community, artificial curiosity provides a natural intrinsic motivation for efficient learning as inspired by human cognitive development; meanwhile, it can bridge the existing gap between AI research and practical application scenarios, such as overfitting, poor generalization, limited training samples, high computational cost, etc. As a result, curiosity-driven learning (CDL) has become increasingly popular, where agents are self-motivated to learn novel knowledge. In this paper, we first present a comprehensive review on the psychological study of curiosity and summarize a unified framework for quantifying curiosity as well as its arousal mechanism. Based on the psychological principle, we further survey the literature of existing CDL methods in the fields of Reinforcement Learning, Recommendation, and Classification, where both advantages and disadvantages as well as future work are discussed. As a result, this work provides fruitful insights for future CDL research and yield possible directions for further improvement.

* 35 pages, 2 figures, to be submitted 

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