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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Resolving gas bubbles ascending in liquid metal from low-SNR neutron radiography images

Sep 13, 2021
Mihails Birjukovs, Pavel Trtik, Anders Kaestner, Jan Hovind, Martins Klevs, Dariusz Jakub Gawryluk, Knud Thomsen, Andris Jakovics

We demonstrate a new image processing methodology for resolving gas bubbles travelling through liquid metal from dynamic neutron radiography images with intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio. Image pre-processing, denoising and bubble segmentation are described in detail, with practical recommendations. Experimental validation is presented - stationary and moving reference bodies with neutron-transparent cavities are radiographed with imaging conditions similar to the cases with bubbles in liquid metal. The new methods are applied to our experimental data from previous and recent imaging campaigns, and the performance of the methods proposed in this paper is compared against our previously developed methods. Significant improvements are observed as well as the capacity to reliably extract physically meaningful information from measurements performed under highly adverse imaging conditions. The showcased image processing solution and separate elements thereof are readily extendable beyond the present application, and have been made open-source.

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Interactive Storytelling for Children: A Case-study of Design and Development Considerations for Ethical Conversational AI

Jul 20, 2021
ennifer Chubba, Sondess Missaouib, Shauna Concannonc, Liam Maloneyb, James Alfred Walker

Conversational Artificial Intelligence (CAI) systems and Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPA), such as Alexa, Cortana, Google Home and Siri are becoming ubiquitous in our lives, including those of children, the implications of which is receiving increased attention, specifically with respect to the effects of these systems on children's cognitive, social and linguistic development. Recent advances address the implications of CAI with respect to privacy, safety, security, and access. However, there is a need to connect and embed the ethical and technical aspects in the design. Using a case-study of a research and development project focused on the use of CAI in storytelling for children, this paper reflects on the social context within a specific case of technology development, as substantiated and supported by argumentation from within the literature. It describes the decision making process behind the recommendations made on this case for their adoption in the creative industries. Further research that engages with developers and stakeholders in the ethics of storytelling through CAI is highlighted as a matter of urgency.

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Exploring Disentanglement with Multilingual and Monolingual VQ-VAE

May 04, 2021
Jennifer Williams, Jason Fong, Erica Cooper, Junichi Yamagishi

This work examines the content and usefulness of disentangled phone and speaker representations from two separately trained VQ-VAE systems: one trained on multilingual data and another trained on monolingual data. We explore the multi- and monolingual models using four small proof-of-concept tasks: copy-synthesis, voice transformation, linguistic code-switching, and content-based privacy masking. From these tasks, we reflect on how disentangled phone and speaker representations can be used to manipulate speech in a meaningful way. Our experiments demonstrate that the VQ representations are suitable for these tasks, including creating new voices by mixing speaker representations together. We also present our novel technique to conceal the content of targeted words within an utterance by manipulating phone VQ codes, while retaining speaker identity and intelligibility of surrounding words. Finally, we discuss recommendations for further increasing the viability of disentangled representations.

* Submitted to Speech Synthesis Workshop 2021 (SSW11) 

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Homomorphically Encrypted Linear Contextual Bandit

Mar 17, 2021
Evrard Garcelon, Vianney Perchet, Matteo Pirotta

Contextual bandit is a general framework for online learning in sequential decision-making problems that has found application in a large range of domains, including recommendation system, online advertising, clinical trials and many more. A critical aspect of bandit methods is that they require to observe the contexts -- i.e., individual or group-level data -- and the rewards in order to solve the sequential problem. The large deployment in industrial applications has increased interest in methods that preserve the privacy of the users. In this paper, we introduce a privacy-preserving bandit framework based on asymmetric encryption. The bandit algorithm only observes encrypted information (contexts and rewards) and has no ability to decrypt it. Leveraging homomorphic encryption, we show that despite the complexity of the setting, it is possible to learn over encrypted data. We introduce an algorithm that achieves a $\widetilde{O}(d\sqrt{T})$ regret bound in any linear contextual bandit problem, while keeping data encrypted.

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Accounting for Variance in Machine Learning Benchmarks

Mar 01, 2021
Xavier Bouthillier, Pierre Delaunay, Mirko Bronzi, Assya Trofimov, Brennan Nichyporuk, Justin Szeto, Naz Sepah, Edward Raff, Kanika Madan, Vikram Voleti, Samira Ebrahimi Kahou, Vincent Michalski, Dmitriy Serdyuk, Tal Arbel, Chris Pal, Gaël Varoquaux, Pascal Vincent

Strong empirical evidence that one machine-learning algorithm A outperforms another one B ideally calls for multiple trials optimizing the learning pipeline over sources of variation such as data sampling, data augmentation, parameter initialization, and hyperparameters choices. This is prohibitively expensive, and corners are cut to reach conclusions. We model the whole benchmarking process, revealing that variance due to data sampling, parameter initialization and hyperparameter choice impact markedly the results. We analyze the predominant comparison methods used today in the light of this variance. We show a counter-intuitive result that adding more sources of variation to an imperfect estimator approaches better the ideal estimator at a 51 times reduction in compute cost. Building on these results, we study the error rate of detecting improvements, on five different deep-learning tasks/architectures. This study leads us to propose recommendations for performance comparisons.

* Submitted to MLSys2021 

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Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with Zellner Penalty

Dec 07, 2020
Matthew Corsetti, Ernest Fokoué

Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a relatively new unsupervised learning algorithm that decomposes a nonnegative data matrix into a parts-based, lower dimensional, linear representation of the data. NMF has applications in image processing, text mining, recommendation systems and a variety of other fields. Since its inception, the NMF algorithm has been modified and explored by numerous authors. One such modification involves the addition of auxiliary constraints to the objective function of the factorization. The purpose of these auxiliary constraints is to impose task-specific penalties or restrictions on the objective function. Though many auxiliary constraints have been studied, none have made use of data-dependent penalties. In this paper, we propose Zellner nonnegative matrix factorization (ZNMF), which uses data-dependent auxiliary constraints. We assess the facial recognition performance of the ZNMF algorithm and several other well-known constrained NMF algorithms using the Cambridge ORL database.

* Open Journal of Statistics 5 (2015) 777-786 
* 10 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables 

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MISIM: An End-to-End Neural Code Similarity System

Jun 15, 2020
Fangke Ye, Shengtian Zhou, Anand Venkat, Ryan Marcus, Nesime Tatbul, Jesmin Jahan Tithi, Paul Petersen, Timothy Mattson, Tim Kraska, Pradeep Dubey, Vivek Sarkar, Justin Gottschlich

Code similarity systems are integral to a range of applications from code recommendation to automated construction of software tests and defect mitigation. In this paper, we present Machine Inferred Code Similarity (MISIM), a novel end-to-end code similarity system that consists of two core components. First, MISIM uses a novel context-aware similarity structure, which is designed to aid in lifting semantic meaning from code syntax. Second, MISIM provides a neural-based code similarity scoring system, which can be implemented with various neural network algorithms and topologies with learned parameters. We compare MISIM to three other state-of-the-art code similarity systems: (i) code2vec, (ii) Neural Code Comprehension, and (iii) Aroma. In our experimental evaluation across 45,780 programs, MISIM consistently outperformed all three systems, often by a large factor (upwards of 40.6x).

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2003.11118 

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Privacy in Deep Learning: A Survey

May 09, 2020
Fatemehsadat Mireshghallah, Mohammadkazem Taram, Praneeth Vepakomma, Abhishek Singh, Ramesh Raskar, Hadi Esmaeilzadeh

The ever-growing advances of deep learning in many areas including vision, recommendation systems, natural language processing, etc., have led to the adoption of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in production systems. The availability of large datasets and high computational power are the main contributors to these advances. The datasets are usually crowdsourced and may contain sensitive information. This poses serious privacy concerns as this data can be misused or leaked through various vulnerabilities. Even if the cloud provider and the communication link is trusted, there are still threats of inference attacks where an attacker could speculate properties of the data used for training, or find the underlying model architecture and parameters. In this survey, we review the privacy concerns brought by deep learning, and the mitigating techniques introduced to tackle these issues. We also show that there is a gap in the literature regarding test-time inference privacy, and propose possible future research directions.

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