In this paper, we introduce a novel technique for constrained submodular maximization, inspired by barrier functions in continuous optimization. This connection not only improves the running time for constrained submodular maximization but also provides the state of the art guarantee. More precisely, for maximizing a monotone submodular function subject to the combination of a $k$-matchoid and $\ell$-knapsack constraint (for $\ell\leq k$), we propose a potential function that can be approximately minimized. Once we minimize the potential function up to an $\epsilon$ error it is guaranteed that we have found a feasible set with a $2(k+1+\epsilon)$-approximation factor which can indeed be further improved to $(k+1+\epsilon)$ by an enumeration technique. We extensively evaluate the performance of our proposed algorithm over several real-world applications, including a movie recommendation system, summarization tasks for YouTube videos, Twitter feeds and Yelp business locations, and a set cover problem.
In recent years there has been a rapid increase in classification methods on graph structured data. Both in graph kernels and graph neural networks, one of the implicit assumptions of successful state-of-the-art models was that incorporating graph isomorphism features into the architecture leads to better empirical performance. However, as we discover in this work, commonly used data sets for graph classification have repeating instances which cause the problem of isomorphism bias, i.e. artificially increasing the accuracy of the models by memorizing target information from the training set. This prevents fair competition of the algorithms and raises a question of the validity of the obtained results. We analyze 54 data sets, previously extensively used for graph-related tasks, on the existence of isomorphism bias, give a set of recommendations to machine learning practitioners to properly set up their models, and open source new data sets for the future experiments.
E-Commerce personalization aims to provide individualized offers, product recommendations, and other content to customers based on their interests. The foundation of any personalization effort is customer segmentation. The idea of customer segmentation is to group customers together according to identifiable segmentation attributes including geolocation, gender, age, and interests. Personality quiz turns out to be a powerful tool that enables costumer segmentation by actively asking them questions, and marketers are using it as an effective method of generating leads and increasing e-commerce sales. In this paper, we study the problem of how to select and sequence a group of quiz questions so as to optimize the quality of customer segmentation. In particular, we use conditional entropy to measure the utility of a given group of quiz questions. We model the user behavior when interacting with a sequence of quiz questions as a Markov process. Then we develop a series of question allocation strategies with provable performance bound.
Because robots can directly perceive and affect the physical world, security issues take on particular importance. In this paper, we describe the results of our work on scanning the entire IPv4 address space of the Internet for instances of the Robot Operating System (ROS), a widely used robotics platform for research. Our results identified that a number of hosts supporting ROS are exposed to the public Internet, thereby allowing anyone to access robotic sensors and actuators. As a proof of concept, and with consent, we were able to read image sensor information and move the robot of a research group in a US university. This paper gives an overview of our findings, including the geographic distribution of publicly-accessible platforms, the sorts of sensor and actuator data that is available, as well as the different kinds of robots and sensors that our scan uncovered. Additionally, we offer recommendations on best practices to mitigate these security issues in the future.
In this paper, we propose two new algorithms for transduction with Matrix Completion (MC) problem. The joint MC and prediction tasks are addressed simultaneously to enhance the accuracy, i.e., the label matrix is concatenated to the data matrix forming a stacked matrix. Assuming the data matrix is of low rank, we propose new recommendation methods by posing the problem as a constrained minimization of the Smoothed Rank Function (SRF). We provide convergence analysis for the proposed algorithms. The simulations are conducted on real datasets in two different scenarios of randomly missing pattern with and without block loss. The results confirm that the accuracy of our proposed methods outperforms those of state-of-the-art methods even up to 10% in low observation rates for the scenario without block loss. Our accuracy in the latter scenario, is comparable to state-of-the-art methods while the complexity of the proposed algorithms are reduced up to 4 times.
In recent years, deep learning has made tremendous progress in a number of fields that were previously out of reach for artificial intelligence. The successes in these problems has led researchers to consider the possibilities for intelligent systems to tackle a problem that humans have only recently themselves considered: program synthesis. This challenge is unlike others such as object recognition and speech translation, since its abstract nature and demand for rigor make it difficult even for human minds to attempt. While it is still far from being solved or even competitive with most existing methods, neural program synthesis is a rapidly growing discipline which holds great promise if completely realized. In this paper, we start with exploring the problem statement and challenges of program synthesis. Then, we examine the fascinating evolution of program induction models, along with how they have succeeded, failed and been reimagined since. Finally, we conclude with a contrastive look at program synthesis and future research recommendations for the field.
Selecting optimal parameters for a neural network architecture can often make the difference between mediocre and state-of-the-art performance. However, little is published which parameters and design choices should be evaluated or selected making the correct hyperparameter optimization often a "black art that requires expert experiences" (Snoek et al., 2012). In this paper, we evaluate the importance of different network design choices and hyperparameters for five common linguistic sequence tagging tasks (POS, Chunking, NER, Entity Recognition, and Event Detection). We evaluated over 50.000 different setups and found, that some parameters, like the pre-trained word embeddings or the last layer of the network, have a large impact on the performance, while other parameters, for example the number of LSTM layers or the number of recurrent units, are of minor importance. We give a recommendation on a configuration that performs well among different tasks.
Wikipedia is a useful knowledge source that benefits many applications in language processing and knowledge representation. An important feature of Wikipedia is that of categories. Wikipedia pages are assigned different categories according to their contents as human-annotated labels which can be used in information retrieval, ad hoc search improvements, entity ranking and tag recommendations. However, important pages are usually assigned too many categories, which makes it difficult to recognize the most important ones that give the best descriptions. In this paper, we propose an approach to recognize the most descriptive Wikipedia categories. We observe that historical figures in a precise category presumably are mutually similar and such categorical coherence could be evaluated via texts or Wikipedia links of corresponding members in the category. We rank descriptive level of Wikipedia categories according to their coherence and our ranking yield an overall agreement of 88.27% compared with human wisdom.
The prediction of a stock market direction may serve as an early recommendation system for short-term investors and as an early financial distress warning system for long-term shareholders. Many stock prediction studies focus on using macroeconomic indicators, such as CPI and GDP, to train the prediction model. However, daily data of the macroeconomic indicators are almost impossible to obtain. Thus, those methods are difficult to be employed in practice. In this paper, we propose a method that directly uses prices data to predict market index direction and stock price direction. An extensive empirical study of the proposed method is presented on the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) and Hang Seng Index (HSI), as well as the individual constituents included in the indices. The experimental results show notably high hit ratios in predicting the movements of the individual constituents in the KOSPI and HIS.