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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

User Intent Classification using Memory Networks: A Comparative Analysis for a Limited Data Scenario

Jun 19, 2017
Arjun Bhardwaj, Alexander Rudnicky

In this report, we provide a comparative analysis of different techniques for user intent classification towards the task of app recommendation. We analyse the performance of different models and architectures for multi-label classification over a dataset with a relative large number of classes and only a handful examples of each class. We focus, in particular, on memory network architectures, and compare how well the different versions perform under the task constraints. Since the classifier is meant to serve as a module in a practical dialog system, it needs to be able to work with limited training data and incorporate new data on the fly. We devise a 1-shot learning task to test the models under the above constraint. We conclude that relatively simple versions of memory networks perform better than other approaches. Although, for tasks with very limited data, simple non-parametric methods perform comparably, without needing the extra training data.

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Supervised Typing of Big Graphs using Semantic Embeddings

Mar 22, 2017
Mayank Kejriwal, Pedro Szekely

We propose a supervised algorithm for generating type embeddings in the same semantic vector space as a given set of entity embeddings. The algorithm is agnostic to the derivation of the underlying entity embeddings. It does not require any manual feature engineering, generalizes well to hundreds of types and achieves near-linear scaling on Big Graphs containing many millions of triples and instances by virtue of an incremental execution. We demonstrate the utility of the embeddings on a type recommendation task, outperforming a non-parametric feature-agnostic baseline while achieving 15x speedup and near-constant memory usage on a full partition of DBpedia. Using state-of-the-art visualization, we illustrate the agreement of our extensionally derived DBpedia type embeddings with the manually curated domain ontology. Finally, we use the embeddings to probabilistically cluster about 4 million DBpedia instances into 415 types in the DBpedia ontology.

* 6 pages, to be published in Semantic Big Data Workshop at ACM, SIGMOD 2017; extended version in preparation for Open Journal of Semantic Web (OJSW) 

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Collaboratively Learning Preferences from Ordinal Data

Jun 26, 2015
Sewoong Oh, Kiran K. Thekumparampil, Jiaming Xu

In applications such as recommendation systems and revenue management, it is important to predict preferences on items that have not been seen by a user or predict outcomes of comparisons among those that have never been compared. A popular discrete choice model of multinomial logit model captures the structure of the hidden preferences with a low-rank matrix. In order to predict the preferences, we want to learn the underlying model from noisy observations of the low-rank matrix, collected as revealed preferences in various forms of ordinal data. A natural approach to learn such a model is to solve a convex relaxation of nuclear norm minimization. We present the convex relaxation approach in two contexts of interest: collaborative ranking and bundled choice modeling. In both cases, we show that the convex relaxation is minimax optimal. We prove an upper bound on the resulting error with finite samples, and provide a matching information-theoretic lower bound.

* 38 pages 2 figures 

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Network-based clustering with mixtures of L1-penalized Gaussian graphical models: an empirical investigation

Jan 10, 2013
Steven M. Hill, Sach Mukherjee

In many applications, multivariate samples may harbor previously unrecognized heterogeneity at the level of conditional independence or network structure. For example, in cancer biology, disease subtypes may differ with respect to subtype-specific interplay between molecular components. Then, both subtype discovery and estimation of subtype-specific networks present important and related challenges. To enable such analyses, we put forward a mixture model whose components are sparse Gaussian graphical models. This brings together model-based clustering and graphical modeling to permit simultaneous estimation of cluster assignments and cluster-specific networks. We carry out estimation within an L1-penalized framework, and investigate several specific penalization regimes. We present empirical results on simulated data and provide general recommendations for the formulation and use of mixtures of L1-penalized Gaussian graphical models.

* A version of this work also appears in the first author's PhD Thesis (Sparse Graphical Models for Cancer Signalling, University of Warwick, 2012), which can be accessed at 

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Delayed Feedback in Episodic Reinforcement Learning

Nov 15, 2021
Benjamin Howson, Ciara Pike-Burke, Sarah Filippi

There are many provably efficient algorithms for episodic reinforcement learning. However, these algorithms are built under the assumption that the sequences of states, actions and rewards associated with each episode arrive immediately, allowing policy updates after every interaction with the environment. This assumption is often unrealistic in practice, particularly in areas such as healthcare and online recommendation. In this paper, we study the impact of delayed feedback on several provably efficient algorithms for regret minimisation in episodic reinforcement learning. Firstly, we consider updating the policy as soon as new feedback becomes available. Using this updating scheme, we show that the regret increases by an additive term involving the number of states, actions, episode length and the expected delay. This additive term changes depending on the optimistic algorithm of choice. We also show that updating the policy less frequently can lead to an improved dependency of the regret on the delays.

* 16 pages, 2 algorithms, 1 table 

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Low-Precision Quantization for Efficient Nearest Neighbor Search

Oct 17, 2021
Anthony Ko, Iman Keivanloo, Vihan Lakshman, Eric Schkufza

Fast k-Nearest Neighbor search over real-valued vector spaces (KNN) is an important algorithmic task for information retrieval and recommendation systems. We present a method for using reduced precision to represent vectors through quantized integer values, enabling both a reduction in the memory overhead of indexing these vectors and faster distance computations at query time. While most traditional quantization techniques focus on minimizing the reconstruction error between a point and its uncompressed counterpart, we focus instead on preserving the behavior of the underlying distance metric. Furthermore, our quantization approach is applied at the implementation level and can be combined with existing KNN algorithms. Our experiments on both open source and proprietary datasets across multiple popular KNN frameworks validate that quantized distance metrics can reduce memory by 60% and improve query throughput by 30%, while incurring only a 2% reduction in recall.

* 5 pages 

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Convolutional Neural Bandit: Provable Algorithm for Visual-aware Advertising

Jul 02, 2021
Yikun Ban, Jingrui He

Online advertising is ubiquitous in web business. Image displaying is considered as one of the most commonly used formats to interact with customers. Contextual multi-armed bandit has shown success in the application of advertising to solve the exploration-exploitation dilemma existed in the recommendation procedure. Inspired by the visual-aware advertising, in this paper, we propose a contextual bandit algorithm, where the convolutional neural network (CNN) is utilized to learn the reward function along with an upper confidence bound (UCB) for exploration. We also prove a near-optimal regret bound $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\sqrt{T})$ when the network is over-parameterized and establish strong connections with convolutional neural tangent kernel (CNTK). Finally, we evaluate the empirical performance of the proposed algorithm and show that it outperforms other state-of-the-art UCB-based bandit algorithms on real-world image data sets.

* 23 pages, in submission 

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Generative Actor-Critic: An Off-policy Algorithm Using the Push-forward Model

May 08, 2021
Peng Lingwei

Model-free deep reinforcement learning has achieved great success in many domains, such as video games, recommendation systems and robotic control tasks. In continuous control tasks, widely used policies with Gaussian distributions results in ineffective exploration of environments and limited performance of algorithms in many cases. In this paper, we propose a density-free off-policy algorithm, Generative Actor-Critic(GAC), using the push-forward model to increase the expressiveness of policies, which also includes an entropy-like technique, MMD-entropy regularizer, to balance the exploration and exploitation. Additionnally, we devise an adaptive mechanism to automatically scale this regularizer, which further improves the stability and robustness of GAC. The experiment results show that push-forward policies possess desirable features, such as multi-modality, which can improve the efficiency of exploration and asymptotic performance of algorithms obviously.

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AliMe KG: Domain Knowledge Graph Construction and Application in E-commerce

Sep 24, 2020
Feng-Lin Li, Hehong Chen, Guohai Xu, Tian Qiu, Feng Ji, Ji Zhang, Haiqing Chen

Pre-sales customer service is of importance to E-commerce platforms as it contributes to optimizing customers' buying process. To better serve users, we propose AliMe KG, a domain knowledge graph in E-commerce that captures user problems, points of interests (POI), item information and relations thereof. It helps to understand user needs, answer pre-sales questions and generate explanation texts. We applied AliMe KG to several online business scenarios such as shopping guide, question answering over properties and recommendation reason generation, and gained positive results. In the paper, we systematically introduce how we construct domain knowledge graph from free text, and demonstrate its business value with several applications. Our experience shows that mining structured knowledge from free text in vertical domain is practicable, and can be of substantial value in industrial settings.

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A Decade of In-text Citation Analysis based on Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning Techniques: An overview of empirical studies

Aug 29, 2020
Sehrish Iqbal, Saeed-Ul Hassan, Naif Radi Aljohani, Salem Alelyani, Raheel Nawaz, Lutz Bornmann

Citation analysis is one of the most frequently used methods in research evaluation. We are seeing significant growth in citation analysis through bibliometric metadata, primarily due to the availability of citation databases such as the Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, and Dimensions. Due to better access to full-text publication corpora in recent years, information scientists have gone far beyond traditional bibliometrics by tapping into advancements in full-text data processing techniques to measure the impact of scientific publications in contextual terms. This has led to technical developments in citation context and content analysis, citation classifications, citation sentiment analysis, citation summarisation, and citation-based recommendation. This article aims to narratively review the studies on these developments. Its primary focus is on publications that have used natural language processing and machine learning techniques to analyse citations.

* 59 pages, 4 figures, 8 tables (submitted to Scientometrics) 

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