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Knowledge representation and diagnostic inference using Bayesian networks in the medical discourse

Sep 18, 2019
Sebastian Flügge, Sandra Zimmer, Uwe Petersohn

For the diagnostic inference under uncertainty Bayesian networks are investigated. The method is based on an adequate uniform representation of the necessary knowledge. This includes both generic and experience-based specific knowledge, which is stored in a knowledge base. For knowledge processing, a combination of the problem-solving methods of concept-based and case-based reasoning is used. Concept-based reasoning is used for the diagnosis, therapy and medication recommendation and evaluation of generic knowledge. Exceptions in the form of specific patient cases are processed by case-based reasoning. In addition, the use of Bayesian networks allows to deal with uncertainty, fuzziness and incompleteness. Thus, the valid general concepts can be issued according to their probability. To this end, various inference mechanisms are introduced and subsequently evaluated within the context of a developed prototype. Tests are employed to assess the classification of diagnoses by the network.


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Examining Deep Learning Architectures for Crime Classification and Prediction

Dec 03, 2018
Panagiotis Stalidis, Theodoros Semertzidis, Petros Daras

In this paper, a detailed study on crime classification and prediction using deep learning architectures is presented. We examine the effectiveness of deep learning algorithms on this domain and provide recommendations for designing and training deep learning systems for predicting crime areas, using open data from police reports. Having as training data time-series of crime types per location, a comparative study of 10 state-of-the-art methods against 3 different deep learning configurations is conducted. In our experiments with five publicly available datasets, we demonstrate that the deep learning-based methods consistently outperform the existing best-performing methods. Moreover, we evaluate the effectiveness of different parameters in the deep learning architectures and give insights for configuring them in order to achieve improved performance in crime classification and finally crime prediction.


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Suggesting Cooking Recipes Through Simulation and Bayesian Optimization

Nov 09, 2018
Eduardo C. Garrido-Merchán, Alejandro Albarca-Molina

Cooking typically involves a plethora of decisions about ingredients and tools that need to be chosen in order to write a good cooking recipe. Cooking can be modelled in an optimization framework, as it involves a search space of ingredients, kitchen tools, cooking times or temperatures. If we model as an objective function the quality of the recipe, several problems arise. No analytical expression can model all the recipes, so no gradients are available. The objective function is subjective, in other words, it contains noise. Moreover, evaluations are expensive both in time and human resources. Bayesian Optimization (BO) emerges as an ideal methodology to tackle problems with these characteristics. In this paper, we propose a methodology to suggest recipe recommendations based on a Machine Learning (ML) model that fits real and simulated data and BO. We provide empirical evidence with two experiments that support the adequacy of the methodology.


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An Evaluation of Trajectory Prediction Approaches and Notes on the TrajNet Benchmark

Aug 16, 2018
Stefan Becker, Ronny Hug, Wolfgang Hübner, Michael Arens

In recent years, there is a shift from modeling the tracking problem based on Bayesian formulation towards using deep neural networks. Towards this end, in this paper the effectiveness of various deep neural networks for predicting future pedestrian paths are evaluated. The analyzed deep networks solely rely, like in the traditional approaches, on observed tracklets without human-human interaction information. The evaluation is done on the publicly available TrajNet benchmark dataset, which builds up a repository of considerable and popular datasets for trajectory-based activity forecasting. We show that a Recurrent-Encoder with a Dense layer stacked on top, referred to as RED-predictor, is able to achieve sophisticated results compared to elaborated models in such scenarios. Further, we investigate failure cases and give explanations for observed phenomena and give some recommendations for overcoming demonstrated shortcomings.

* Accepted at ECCV Workshop on Anticipating Human Behavior under adapted title. RED: A simple but effective Baseline Predictor for the TrajNet Benchmark 

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Algorithms for Fitting the Constrained Lasso

Oct 28, 2016
Brian R. Gaines, Hua Zhou

We compare alternative computing strategies for solving the constrained lasso problem. As its name suggests, the constrained lasso extends the widely-used lasso to handle linear constraints, which allow the user to incorporate prior information into the model. In addition to quadratic programming, we employ the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) and also derive an efficient solution path algorithm. Through both simulations and real data examples, we compare the different algorithms and provide practical recommendations in terms of efficiency and accuracy for various sizes of data. We also show that, for an arbitrary penalty matrix, the generalized lasso can be transformed to a constrained lasso, while the converse is not true. Thus, our methods can also be used for estimating a generalized lasso, which has wide-ranging applications. Code for implementing the algorithms is freely available in the Matlab toolbox SparseReg.


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One-Pass Learning with Incremental and Decremental Features

May 30, 2016
Chenping Hou, Zhi-Hua Zhou

In many real tasks the features are evolving, with some features being vanished and some other features augmented. For example, in environment monitoring some sensors expired whereas some new ones deployed; in mobile game recommendation some games dropped whereas some new ones added. Learning with such incremental and decremental features is crucial but rarely studied, particularly when the data coming like a stream and thus it is infeasible to keep the whole data for optimization. In this paper, we study this challenging problem and present the OPID approach. Our approach attempts to compress important information of vanished features into functions of survived features, and then expand to include the augmented features. It is the one-pass learning approach, which only needs to scan each instance once and does not need to store the whole data, and thus satisfy the evolving streaming data nature. The effectiveness of our approach is validated theoretically and empirically.


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More Engineering, No Silos: Rethinking Processes and Interfaces in Collaboration between Interdisciplinary Teams for Machine Learning Projects

Oct 19, 2021
Nadia Nahar, Shurui Zhou, Grace Lewis, Christian Kästner

The introduction of machine learning (ML) components in software projects has created the need for software engineers to collaborate with data scientists and other specialists. While collaboration can always be challenging, ML introduces additional challenges with its exploratory model development process, additional skills and knowledge needed, difficulties testing ML systems, need for continuous evolution and monitoring, and non-traditional quality requirements such as fairness and explainability. Through interviews with 45 practitioners from 28 organizations, we identified key collaboration challenges that teams face when building and deploying ML systems into production. We report on common collaboration points in the development of production ML systems for requirements, data, and integration, as well as corresponding team patterns and challenges. We find that most of these challenges center around communication, documentation, engineering, and process and collect recommendations to address these challenges.

* 22 pages, 10 figures, 5 tables 

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User-friendly Comparison of Similarity Algorithms on Wikidata

Aug 11, 2021
Filip Ilievski, Pedro Szekely, Gleb Satyukov, Amandeep Singh

While the similarity between two concept words has been evaluated and studied for decades, much less attention has been devoted to algorithms that can compute the similarity of nodes in very large knowledge graphs, like Wikidata. To facilitate investigations and head-to-head comparisons of similarity algorithms on Wikidata, we present a user-friendly interface that allows flexible computation of similarity between Qnodes in Wikidata. At present, the similarity interface supports four algorithms, based on: graph embeddings (TransE, ComplEx), text embeddings (BERT), and class-based similarity. We demonstrate the behavior of the algorithms on representative examples about semantically similar, related, and entirely unrelated entity pairs. To support anticipated applications that require efficient similarity computations, like entity linking and recommendation, we also provide a REST API that can compute most similar neighbors for any Qnode in Wikidata.


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A Pragmatic Look at Deep Imitation Learning

Aug 04, 2021
Kai Arulkumaran, Dan Ogawa Lillrank

The introduction of the generative adversarial imitation learning (GAIL) algorithm has spurred the development of scalable imitation learning approaches using deep neural networks. The GAIL objective can be thought of as 1) matching the expert policy's state distribution; 2) penalising the learned policy's state distribution; and 3) maximising entropy. While theoretically motivated, in practice GAIL can be difficult to apply, not least due to the instabilities of adversarial training. In this paper, we take a pragmatic look at GAIL and related imitation learning algorithms. We implement and automatically tune a range of algorithms in a unified experimental setup, presenting a fair evaluation between the competing methods. From our results, our primary recommendation is to consider non-adversarial methods. Furthermore, we discuss the common components of imitation learning objectives, and present promising avenues for future research.


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QoS Prediction for 5G Connected and Automated Driving

Jul 11, 2021
Apostolos Kousaridas, Ramya Panthangi Manjunath, Jose Mauricio Perdomo, Chan Zhou, Ernst Zielinski, Steffen Schmitz, Andreas Pfadler

5G communication system can support the demanding quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of many advanced vehicle-to-everything (V2X) use cases. However, the safe and efficient driving, especially of automated vehicles, may be affected by sudden changes of the provided QoS. For that reason, the prediction of the QoS changes and the early notification of these predicted changes to the vehicles have been recently enabled by 5G communication systems. This solution enables the vehicles to avoid or mitigate the effect of sudden QoS changes at the application level. This article describes how QoS prediction could be generated by a 5G communication system and delivered to a V2X application. The tele-operated driving use case is used as an example to analyze the feasibility of a QoS prediction scheme. Useful recommendations for the development of a QoS prediction solution are provided, while open research topics are identified.

* 7 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in the IEEE Communications Magazine 

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