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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

LRSVRG-IMC: An SVRG-Based Algorithm for LowRank Inductive Matrix Completion

Jan 21, 2022
Shangrong Yu, Yuxin Chen, Hejun Wu

Low-rank inductive matrix completion (IMC) is currently widely used in IoT data completion, recommendation systems, and so on, as the side information in IMC has demonstrated great potential in reducing sample point remains a major obstacle for the convergence of the nonconvex solutions to IMC. What's more, carefully choosing the initial solution alone does not usually help remove the saddle points. To address this problem, we propose a stocastic variance reduction gradient-based algorithm called LRSVRG-IMC. LRSVRG-IMC can escape from the saddle points under various low-rank and sparse conditions with a properly chosen initial input. We also prove that LRSVVRG-IMC achieves both a linear convergence rate and a near-optimal sample complexity. The superiority and applicability of LRSVRG-IMC are verified via experiments on synthetic datasets.

* 15 pages 

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NG+ : A Multi-Step Matrix-Product Natural Gradient Method for Deep Learning

Jun 14, 2021
Minghan Yang, Dong Xu, Qiwen Cui, Zaiwen Wen, Pengxiang Xu

In this paper, a novel second-order method called NG+ is proposed. By following the rule ``the shape of the gradient equals the shape of the parameter", we define a generalized fisher information matrix (GFIM) using the products of gradients in the matrix form rather than the traditional vectorization. Then, our generalized natural gradient direction is simply the inverse of the GFIM multiplies the gradient in the matrix form. Moreover, the GFIM and its inverse keeps the same for multiple steps so that the computational cost can be controlled and is comparable with the first-order methods. A global convergence is established under some mild conditions and a regret bound is also given for the online learning setting. Numerical results on image classification with ResNet50, quantum chemistry modeling with Schnet, neural machine translation with Transformer and recommendation system with DLRM illustrate that GN+ is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods.

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Local Algorithms for Estimating Effective Resistance

Jun 07, 2021
Pan Peng, Daniel Lopatta, Yuichi Yoshida, Gramoz Goranci

Effective resistance is an important metric that measures the similarity of two vertices in a graph. It has found applications in graph clustering, recommendation systems and network reliability, among others. In spite of the importance of the effective resistances, we still lack efficient algorithms to exactly compute or approximate them on massive graphs. In this work, we design several \emph{local algorithms} for estimating effective resistances, which are algorithms that only read a small portion of the input while still having provable performance guarantees. To illustrate, our main algorithm approximates the effective resistance between any vertex pair $s,t$ with an arbitrarily small additive error $\varepsilon$ in time $O(\mathrm{poly}(\log n/\varepsilon))$, whenever the underlying graph has bounded mixing time. We perform an extensive empirical study on several benchmark datasets, validating the performance of our algorithms.

* KDD 2021 

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What if we Increase the Number of Objectives? Theoretical and Empirical Implications for Many-objective Optimization

Jun 06, 2021
Richard Allmendinger, Andrzej Jaszkiewicz, Arnaud Liefooghe, Christiane Tammer

The difficulty of solving a multi-objective optimization problem is impacted by the number of objectives to be optimized. The presence of many objectives typically introduces a number of challenges that affect the choice/design of optimization algorithms. This paper investigates the drivers of these challenges from two angles: (i) the influence of the number of objectives on problem characteristics and (ii) the practical behavior of commonly used procedures and algorithms for coping with many objectives. In addition to reviewing various drivers, the paper makes theoretical contributions by quantifying some drivers and/or verifying these drivers empirically by carrying out experiments on multi-objective NK landscapes and other typical benchmarks. We then make use of our theoretical and empirical findings to derive practical recommendations to support algorithm design. Finally, we discuss remaining theoretical gaps and opportunities for future research in the area of multi- and many-objective optimization.

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Good practices for Bayesian Optimization of high dimensional structured spaces

Jan 06, 2021
Eero Siivola, Javier Gonzalez, Andrei Paleyes, Aki Vehtari

The increasing availability of structured but high dimensional data has opened new opportunities for optimization. One emerging and promising avenue is the exploration of unsupervised methods for projecting structured high dimensional data into low dimensional continuous representations, simplifying the optimization problem and enabling the application of traditional optimization methods. However, this line of research has been purely methodological with little connection to the needs of practitioners so far. In this paper, we study the effect of different search space design choices for performing Bayesian Optimization in high dimensional structured datasets. In particular, we analyse the influence of the dimensionality of the latent space, the role of the acquisition function and evaluate new methods to automatically define the optimization bounds in the latent space. Finally, based on experimental results using synthetic and real datasets, we provide recommendations for the practitioners.

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Impact of Accuracy on Model Interpretations

Nov 17, 2020
Brian Liu, Madeleine Udell

Model interpretations are often used in practice to extract real world insights from machine learning models. These interpretations have a wide range of applications; they can be presented as business recommendations or used to evaluate model bias. It is vital for a data scientist to choose trustworthy interpretations to drive real world impact. Doing so requires an understanding of how the accuracy of a model impacts the quality of standard interpretation tools. In this paper, we will explore how a model's predictive accuracy affects interpretation quality. We propose two metrics to quantify the quality of an interpretation and design an experiment to test how these metrics vary with model accuracy. We find that for datasets that can be modeled accurately by a variety of methods, simpler methods yield higher quality interpretations. We also identify which interpretation method works the best for lower levels of model accuracy.

* 7 pages, 5 figures 

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Private Reinforcement Learning with PAC and Regret Guarantees

Sep 18, 2020
Giuseppe Vietri, Borja Balle, Akshay Krishnamurthy, Zhiwei Steven Wu

Motivated by high-stakes decision-making domains like personalized medicine where user information is inherently sensitive, we design privacy preserving exploration policies for episodic reinforcement learning (RL). We first provide a meaningful privacy formulation using the notion of joint differential privacy (JDP)--a strong variant of differential privacy for settings where each user receives their own sets of output (e.g., policy recommendations). We then develop a private optimism-based learning algorithm that simultaneously achieves strong PAC and regret bounds, and enjoys a JDP guarantee. Our algorithm only pays for a moderate privacy cost on exploration: in comparison to the non-private bounds, the privacy parameter only appears in lower-order terms. Finally, we present lower bounds on sample complexity and regret for reinforcement learning subject to JDP.

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Causality Learning: A New Perspective for Interpretable Machine Learning

Jun 27, 2020
Guandong Xu, Tri Dung Duong, Qian Li, Shaowu Liu, Xianzhi Wang

Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of machine learning in a wide range of fields such as image recognition, text classification, credit scoring prediction, recommendation system, etc. In spite of their great performance in different sectors, researchers still concern about the mechanism under any machine learning (ML) techniques that are inherently black-box and becoming more complex to achieve higher accuracy. Therefore, interpreting machine learning model is currently a mainstream topic in the research community. However, the traditional interpretable machine learning focuses on the association instead of the causality. This paper provides an overview of causal analysis with the fundamental background and key concepts, and then summarizes most recent causal approaches for interpretable machine learning. The evaluation techniques for assessing method quality, and open problems in causal interpretability are also discussed in this paper.

* 8 Pages 

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Pose Trainer: Correcting Exercise Posture using Pose Estimation

Jun 21, 2020
Steven Chen, Richard R. Yang

Fitness exercises are very beneficial to personal health and fitness; however, they can also be ineffective and potentially dangerous if performed incorrectly by the user. Exercise mistakes are made when the user does not use the proper form, or pose. In our work, we introduce Pose Trainer, an application that detects the user's exercise pose and provides personalized, detailed recommendations on how the user can improve their form. Pose Trainer uses the state of the art in pose estimation to detect a user's pose, then evaluates the vector geometry of the pose through an exercise to provide useful feedback. We record a dataset of over 100 exercise videos of correct and incorrect form, based on personal training guidelines, and build geometric-heuristic and machine learning algorithms for evaluation. Pose Trainer works on four common exercises and supports any Windows or Linux computer with a GPU.

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