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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

On some Foundational Aspects of Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence

Dec 29, 2021
Luciano Serafini, Raul Barbosa, Jasmin Grosinger, Luca Iocchi, Christian Napoli, Salvatore Rinzivillo, Jacques Robin, Alessandro Saffiotti, Teresa Scantamburlo, Peter Schueller, Paolo Traverso, Javier Vazquez-Salceda

The burgeoning of AI has prompted recommendations that AI techniques should be "human-centered". However, there is no clear definition of what is meant by Human Centered Artificial Intelligence, or for short, HCAI. This paper aims to improve this situation by addressing some foundational aspects of HCAI. To do so, we introduce the term HCAI agent to refer to any physical or software computational agent equipped with AI components and that interacts and/or collaborates with humans. This article identifies five main conceptual components that participate in an HCAI agent: Observations, Requirements, Actions, Explanations and Models. We see the notion of HCAI agent, together with its components and functions, as a way to bridge the technical and non-technical discussions on human-centered AI. In this paper, we focus our analysis on scenarios consisting of a single agent operating in dynamic environments in presence of humans.

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Extending CLIP for Category-to-image Retrieval in E-commerce

Dec 21, 2021
Mariya Hendriksen, Maurits Bleeker, Svitlana Vakulenko, Nanne van Noord, Ernst Kuiper, Maarten de Rijke

E-commerce provides rich multimodal data that is barely leveraged in practice. One aspect of this data is a category tree that is being used in search and recommendation. However, in practice, during a user's session there is often a mismatch between a textual and a visual representation of a given category. Motivated by the problem, we introduce the task of category-to-image retrieval in e-commerce and propose a model for the task, CLIP-ITA. The model leverages information from multiple modalities (textual, visual, and attribute modality) to create product representations. We explore how adding information from multiple modalities (textual, visual, and attribute modality) impacts the model's performance. In particular, we observe that CLIP-ITA significantly outperforms a comparable model that leverages only the visual modality and a comparable model that leverages the visual and attribute modality.

* 15 pages, accepted as a full paper at ECIR 2022 

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Hyperparameter Optimization: Foundations, Algorithms, Best Practices and Open Challenges

Jul 14, 2021
Bernd Bischl, Martin Binder, Michel Lang, Tobias Pielok, Jakob Richter, Stefan Coors, Janek Thomas, Theresa Ullmann, Marc Becker, Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Difan Deng, Marius Lindauer

Most machine learning algorithms are configured by one or several hyperparameters that must be carefully chosen and often considerably impact performance. To avoid a time consuming and unreproducible manual trial-and-error process to find well-performing hyperparameter configurations, various automatic hyperparameter optimization (HPO) methods, e.g., based on resampling error estimation for supervised machine learning, can be employed. After introducing HPO from a general perspective, this paper reviews important HPO methods such as grid or random search, evolutionary algorithms, Bayesian optimization, Hyperband and racing. It gives practical recommendations regarding important choices to be made when conducting HPO, including the HPO algorithms themselves, performance evaluation, how to combine HPO with ML pipelines, runtime improvements, and parallelization.

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Beyond Leaderboards: A survey of methods for revealing weaknesses in Natural Language Inference data and models

May 29, 2020
Viktor Schlegel, Goran Nenadic, Riza Batista-Navarro

Recent years have seen a growing number of publications that analyse Natural Language Inference (NLI) datasets for superficial cues, whether they undermine the complexity of the tasks underlying those datasets and how they impact those models that are optimised and evaluated on this data. This structured survey provides an overview of the evolving research area by categorising reported weaknesses in models and datasets and the methods proposed to reveal and alleviate those weaknesses for the English language. We summarise and discuss the findings and conclude with a set of recommendations for possible future research directions. We hope it will be a useful resource for researchers who propose new datasets, to have a set of tools to assess the suitability and quality of their data to evaluate various phenomena of interest, as well as those who develop novel architectures, to further understand the implications of their improvements with respect to their model's acquired capabilities.

* 10 Pages 

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Reassessing Claims of Human Parity and Super-Human Performance in Machine Translation at WMT 2019

May 12, 2020
Antonio Toral

We reassess the claims of human parity and super-human performance made at the news shared task of WMT 2019 for three translation directions: English-to-German, English-to-Russian and German-to-English. First we identify three potential issues in the human evaluation of that shared task: (i) the limited amount of intersentential context available, (ii) the limited translation proficiency of the evaluators and (iii) the use of a reference translation. We then conduct a modified evaluation taking these issues into account. Our results indicate that all the claims of human parity and super-human performance made at WMT 2019 should be refuted, except the claim of human parity for English-to-German. Based on our findings, we put forward a set of recommendations and open questions for future assessments of human parity in machine translation.

* Accepted at the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT 2020) 

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Investigating similarities and differences between South African and Sierra Leonean school outcomes using Machine Learning

Apr 22, 2020
Henry Wandera, Vukosi Marivate, David Sengeh

Available or adequate information to inform decision making for resource allocation in support of school improvement is a critical issue globally. In this paper, we apply machine learning and education data mining techniques on education big data to identify determinants of high schools' performance in two African countries: South Africa and Sierra Leone. The research objective is to build predictors for school performance and extract the importance of different community and school-level features. We deploy interpretable metrics from machine learning approaches such as SHAP values on tree models and odds ratios of LR to extract interactions of factors that can support policy decision making. Determinants of performance vary in these two countries, hence different policy implications and resource allocation recommendations.

* In review 

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Recent Trends in the Use of Statistical Tests for Comparing Swarm and Evolutionary Computing Algorithms: Practical Guidelines and a Critical Review

Feb 21, 2020
J. Carrasco, S. García, M. M. Rueda, S. Das, F. Herrera

A key aspect of the design of evolutionary and swarm intelligence algorithms is studying their performance. Statistical comparisons are also a crucial part which allows for reliable conclusions to be drawn. In the present paper we gather and examine the approaches taken from different perspectives to summarise the assumptions made by these statistical tests, the conclusions reached and the steps followed to perform them correctly. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the current trends of the proposals of statistical analyses for the comparison of algorithms of computational intelligence and include a description of the statistical background of these tests. We illustrate the use of the most common tests in the context of the Competition on single-objective real parameter optimisation of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) 2017 and describe the main advantages and drawbacks of the use of each kind of test and put forward some recommendations concerning their use.

* 52 pages, 10 figures, 19 tables 

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Rosetta: Large scale system for text detection and recognition in images

Oct 11, 2019
Fedor Borisyuk, Albert Gordo, Viswanath Sivakumar

In this paper we present a deployed, scalable optical character recognition (OCR) system, which we call Rosetta, designed to process images uploaded daily at Facebook scale. Sharing of image content has become one of the primary ways to communicate information among internet users within social networks such as Facebook and Instagram, and the understanding of such media, including its textual information, is of paramount importance to facilitate search and recommendation applications. We present modeling techniques for efficient detection and recognition of text in images and describe Rosetta's system architecture. We perform extensive evaluation of presented technologies, explain useful practical approaches to build an OCR system at scale, and provide insightful intuitions as to why and how certain components work based on the lessons learnt during the development and deployment of the system.

* Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining (KDD) 2018, London, United Kingdom 

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Neural Review Rating Prediction with Hierarchical Attentions and Latent Factors

May 29, 2019
Xianchen Wang, Hongtao Liu, Peiyi Wang, Fangzhao Wu, Hongyan Xu, Wenjun Wang, Xing Xie

Text reviews can provide rich useful semantic information for modeling users and items, which can benefit rating prediction in recommendation. Different words and reviews may have different informativeness for users or items. Besides, different users and items should be personalized. Most existing works regard all reviews equally or utilize a general attention mechanism. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical attention model fusing latent factor model for rating prediction with reviews, which can focus on important words and informative reviews. Specially, we use the factor vectors of Latent Factor Model to guide the attention network and combine the factor vectors with feature representation learned from reviews to predict the final ratings. Experiments on real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of our approach.

* 4pages, 1 figures 

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