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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Evaluating Discourse Processing Algorithms

Oct 11, 1994
Marilyn A. Walker

In order to take steps towards establishing a methodology for evaluating Natural Language systems, we conducted a case study. We attempt to evaluate two different approaches to anaphoric processing in discourse by comparing the accuracy and coverage of two published algorithms for finding the co-specifiers of pronouns in naturally occurring texts and dialogues. We present the quantitative results of hand-simulating these algorithms, but this analysis naturally gives rise to both a qualitative evaluation and recommendations for performing such evaluations in general. We illustrate the general difficulties encountered with quantitative evaluation. These are problems with: (a) allowing for underlying assumptions, (b) determining how to handle underspecifications, and (c) evaluating the contribution of false positives and error chaining.

* Association of Computational Linguistics, 1989, p. 251-262 
* plain latex but includes psfig.tex, 11 pages with one psfig, published in 27th Annual Meeting of the ACL, 1989 

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Web of Scholars: A Scholar Knowledge Graph

Feb 23, 2022
Jiaying Liu, Jing Ren, Wenqing Zheng, Lianhua Chi, Ivan Lee, Feng Xia

In this work, we demonstrate a novel system, namely Web of Scholars, which integrates state-of-the-art mining techniques to search, mine, and visualize complex networks behind scholars in the field of Computer Science. Relying on the knowledge graph, it provides services for fast, accurate, and intelligent semantic querying as well as powerful recommendations. In addition, in order to realize information sharing, it provides an open API to be served as the underlying architecture for advanced functions. Web of Scholars takes advantage of knowledge graph, which means that it will be able to access more knowledge if more search exist. It can be served as a useful and interoperable tool for scholars to conduct in-depth analysis within Science of Science.

* Proceedings of the 43rd International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. 2020: 2153-2156 

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Challenges for cognitive decoding using deep learning methods

Aug 16, 2021
Armin W. Thomas, Christopher Ré, Russell A. Poldrack

In cognitive decoding, researchers aim to characterize a brain region's representations by identifying the cognitive states (e.g., accepting/rejecting a gamble) that can be identified from the region's activity. Deep learning (DL) methods are highly promising for cognitive decoding, with their unmatched ability to learn versatile representations of complex data. Yet, their widespread application in cognitive decoding is hindered by their general lack of interpretability as well as difficulties in applying them to small datasets and in ensuring their reproducibility and robustness. We propose to approach these challenges by leveraging recent advances in explainable artificial intelligence and transfer learning, while also providing specific recommendations on how to improve the reproducibility and robustness of DL modeling results.


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I Find Your Lack of Uncertainty in Computer Vision Disturbing

Apr 16, 2021
Matias Valdenegro-Toro

Neural networks are used for many real world applications, but often they have problems estimating their own confidence. This is particularly problematic for computer vision applications aimed at making high stakes decisions with humans and their lives. In this paper we make a meta-analysis of the literature, showing that most if not all computer vision applications do not use proper epistemic uncertainty quantification, which means that these models ignore their own limitations. We describe the consequences of using models without proper uncertainty quantification, and motivate the community to adopt versions of the models they use that have proper calibrated epistemic uncertainty, in order to enable out of distribution detection. We close the paper with a summary of challenges on estimating uncertainty for computer vision applications and recommendations.

* LatinX in CV Workshop @ CVPR 2021, full paper track, camera ready 

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Delay-Adaptive Learning in Generalized Linear Contextual Bandits

Mar 11, 2020
Jose Blanchet, Renyuan Xu, Zhengyuan Zhou

In this paper, we consider online learning in generalized linear contextual bandits where rewards are not immediately observed. Instead, rewards are available to the decision-maker only after some delay, which is unknown and stochastic. We study the performance of two well-known algorithms adapted to this delayed setting: one based on upper confidence bounds, and the other based on Thompson sampling. We describe modifications on how these two algorithms should be adapted to handle delays and give regret characterizations for both algorithms. Our results contribute to the broad landscape of contextual bandits literature by establishing that both algorithms can be made to be robust to delays, thereby helping clarify and reaffirm the empirical success of these two algorithms, which are widely deployed in modern recommendation engines.


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The Ethics of AI Ethics -- An Evaluation of Guidelines

Feb 28, 2019
Thilo Hagendorff

Current advances in research, development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) systems have yielded a far-reaching discourse on AI ethics. In consequence, a number of ethics guidelines have been released in recent years. These guidelines comprise normative principles and recommendations aimed to harness the "disruptive" potentials of new AI technologies. Designed as a comprehensive evaluation, this paper analyzes and compares these guidelines highlighting overlaps but also omissions. As a result, I give a detailed overview of the field of AI ethics. Finally, I also examine to what extent the respective ethical principles and values are implemented in the practice of research, development and application of AI systems - and how the effectiveness in the demands of AI ethics can be improved.

* 15 pages, 1 table 

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Multi-armed Bandit Problem with Known Trend

May 10, 2017
Djallel Bouneffouf, Raphaël Feraud

We consider a variant of the multi-armed bandit model, which we call multi-armed bandit problem with known trend, where the gambler knows the shape of the reward function of each arm but not its distribution. This new problem is motivated by different online problems like active learning, music and interface recommendation applications, where when an arm is sampled by the model the received reward change according to a known trend. By adapting the standard multi-armed bandit algorithm UCB1 to take advantage of this setting, we propose the new algorithm named A-UCB that assumes a stochastic model. We provide upper bounds of the regret which compare favourably with the ones of UCB1. We also confirm that experimentally with different simulations

* Neurocomputing 2016. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:0805.3415 by other authors 

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Package equivalence in complex software network

Feb 11, 2016
Tomislav Slijepčević

The public package registry npm is one of the biggest software registry. With its 216 911 software packages, it forms a big network of software dependencies. In this paper we evaluate various methods for finding similar packages in the npm network, using only the structure of the graph. Namely, we want to find a way of categorizing similar packages, which would be useful for recommendation systems. This size enables us to compute meaningful results, as it softened the particularities of the graph. Npm is also quite famous as it is the default package repository of Node.js. We believe that it will make our results interesting for more people than a less used package repository. This makes it a good subject of analysis of software networks.


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Mood Classification Using Listening Data

Oct 22, 2020
Filip Korzeniowski, Oriol Nieto, Matthew McCallum, Minz Won, Sergio Oramas, Erik Schmidt

The mood of a song is a highly relevant feature for exploration and recommendation in large collections of music. These collections tend to require automatic methods for predicting such moods. In this work, we show that listening-based features outperform content-based ones when classifying moods: embeddings obtained through matrix factorization of listening data appear to be more informative of a track mood than embeddings based on its audio content. To demonstrate this, we compile a subset of the Million Song Dataset, totalling 67k tracks, with expert annotations of 188 different moods collected from AllMusic. Our results on this novel dataset not only expose the limitations of current audio-based models, but also aim to foster further reproducible research on this timely topic.

* Appears in Proc. of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference 2020 (ISMIR 2020) 

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Quantum-Inspired Classical Algorithm for Principal Component Regression

Oct 16, 2020
Daniel Chen, Yekun Xu, Betis Baheri, Chuan Bi, Ying Mao, Qiang Quan, Shuai Xu

This paper presents a sublinear classical algorithm for principal component regression. The algorithm uses quantum-inspired linear algebra, an idea developed by Tang. Using this technique, her algorithm for recommendation systems achieved runtime only polynomially slower than its quantum counterpart. Her work was quickly adapted to solve many other problems in sublinear time complexity. In this work, we developed an algorithm for principal component regression that runs in time polylogarithmic to the number of data points, an exponential speed up over the state-of-the-art algorithm, under the mild assumption that the input is given in some data structure that supports a norm-based sampling procedure. This exponential speed up allows for potential applications in much larger data sets.


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