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A Survey of the Usages of Deep Learning in Natural Language Processing

Jul 27, 2018
Daniel W. Otter, Julian R. Medina, Jugal K. Kalita

Over the last several years, the field of natural language processing has been propelled forward by an explosion in the use of deep learning models. This survey provides a brief introduction to the field and a quick overview of deep learning architectures and methods. It then sifts through the plethora of recent studies and summarizes a large assortment of relevant contributions. Analyzed research areas include several core linguistic processing issues in addition to a number of applications of computational linguistics. A discussion of the current state of the art is then provided along with recommendations for future research in the field.


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An Analysis of Phenotypic Diversity in Multi-Solution Optimization

May 10, 2021
Alexander Hagg, Mike Preuss, Alexander Asteroth, Thomas Bäck

More and more, optimization methods are used to find diverse solution sets. We compare solution diversity in multi-objective optimization, multimodal optimization, and quality diversity in a simple domain. We show that multiobjective optimization does not always produce much diversity, multimodal optimization produces higher fitness solutions, and quality diversity is not sensitive to genetic neutrality and creates the most diverse set of solutions. An autoencoder is used to discover phenotypic features automatically, producing an even more diverse solution set with quality diversity. Finally, we make recommendations about when to use which approach.


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Online Semi-Supervised Learning with Bandit Feedback

Oct 23, 2020
Sohini Upadhyay, Mikhail Yurochkin, Mayank Agarwal, Yasaman Khazaeni, DjallelBouneffouf

We formulate a new problem at the intersectionof semi-supervised learning and contextual bandits,motivated by several applications including clini-cal trials and ad recommendations. We demonstratehow Graph Convolutional Network (GCN), a semi-supervised learning approach, can be adjusted tothe new problem formulation. We also propose avariant of the linear contextual bandit with semi-supervised missing rewards imputation. We thentake the best of both approaches to develop multi-GCN embedded contextual bandit. Our algorithmsare verified on several real world datasets.


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Release Strategies and the Social Impacts of Language Models

Aug 24, 2019
Irene Solaiman, Miles Brundage, Jack Clark, Amanda Askell, Ariel Herbert-Voss, Jeff Wu, Alec Radford, Jasmine Wang

Large language models have a range of beneficial uses: they can assist in prose, poetry, and programming; analyze dataset biases; and more. However, their flexibility and generative capabilities also raise misuse concerns. This report discusses OpenAI's work related to the release of its GPT-2 language model. It discusses staged release, which allows time between model releases to conduct risk and benefit analyses as model sizes increased. It also discusses ongoing partnership-based research and provides recommendations for better coordination and responsible publication in AI.

* 32 pages, report 

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Social Credibility Incorporating Semantic Analysis and Machine Learning: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art and Future Research Directions

Feb 27, 2019
Bilal Abu-Salih, Bushra Bremie, Pornpit Wongthongtham, Kevin Duan, Tomayess Issa, Kit Yan Chan, Mohammad Alhabashneh, Teshreen Albtoush, Sulaiman Alqahtani, Abdullah Alqahtani, Muteeb Alahmari, Naser Alshareef, Abdulaziz Albahlal

The wealth of Social Big Data (SBD) represents a unique opportunity for organisations to obtain the excessive use of such data abundance to increase their revenues. Hence, there is an imperative need to capture, load, store, process, analyse, transform, interpret, and visualise such manifold social datasets to develop meaningful insights that are specific to an application domain. This paper lays the theoretical background by introducing the state-of-the-art literature review of the research topic. This is associated with a critical evaluation of the current approaches, and fortified with certain recommendations indicated to bridge the research gap.


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No Training Required: Exploring Random Encoders for Sentence Classification

Jan 29, 2019
John Wieting, Douwe Kiela

We explore various methods for computing sentence representations from pre-trained word embeddings without any training, i.e., using nothing but random parameterizations. Our aim is to put sentence embeddings on more solid footing by 1) looking at how much modern sentence embeddings gain over random methods---as it turns out, surprisingly little; and by 2) providing the field with more appropriate baselines going forward---which are, as it turns out, quite strong. We also make important observations about proper experimental protocol for sentence classification evaluation, together with recommendations for future research.

* Published as a conference paper at ICLR 2019 

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Making Sense of Random Forest Probabilities: a Kernel Perspective

Dec 14, 2018
Matthew A. Olson, Abraham J. Wyner

A random forest is a popular tool for estimating probabilities in machine learning classification tasks. However, the means by which this is accomplished is unprincipled: one simply counts the fraction of trees in a forest that vote for a certain class. In this paper, we forge a connection between random forests and kernel regression. This places random forest probability estimation on more sound statistical footing. As part of our investigation, we develop a model for the proximity kernel and relate it to the geometry and sparsity of the estimation problem. We also provide intuition and recommendations for tuning a random forest to improve its probability estimates.


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The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation

Feb 20, 2018
Miles Brundage, Shahar Avin, Jack Clark, Helen Toner, Peter Eckersley, Ben Garfinkel, Allan Dafoe, Paul Scharre, Thomas Zeitzoff, Bobby Filar, Hyrum Anderson, Heather Roff, Gregory C. Allen, Jacob Steinhardt, Carrick Flynn, Seán Ó hÉigeartaigh, Simon Beard, Haydn Belfield, Sebastian Farquhar, Clare Lyle, Rebecca Crootof, Owain Evans, Michael Page, Joanna Bryson, Roman Yampolskiy, Dario Amodei

This report surveys the landscape of potential security threats from malicious uses of AI, and proposes ways to better forecast, prevent, and mitigate these threats. After analyzing the ways in which AI may influence the threat landscape in the digital, physical, and political domains, we make four high-level recommendations for AI researchers and other stakeholders. We also suggest several promising areas for further research that could expand the portfolio of defenses, or make attacks less effective or harder to execute. Finally, we discuss, but do not conclusively resolve, the long-term equilibrium of attackers and defenders.


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How NOT To Evaluate Your Dialogue System: An Empirical Study of Unsupervised Evaluation Metrics for Dialogue Response Generation

Jan 03, 2017
Chia-Wei Liu, Ryan Lowe, Iulian V. Serban, Michael Noseworthy, Laurent Charlin, Joelle Pineau

We investigate evaluation metrics for dialogue response generation systems where supervised labels, such as task completion, are not available. Recent works in response generation have adopted metrics from machine translation to compare a model's generated response to a single target response. We show that these metrics correlate very weakly with human judgements in the non-technical Twitter domain, and not at all in the technical Ubuntu domain. We provide quantitative and qualitative results highlighting specific weaknesses in existing metrics, and provide recommendations for future development of better automatic evaluation metrics for dialogue systems.

* First 4 authors had equal contribution. 13 pages, 5 tables, 6 figures. EMNLP 2016 

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MusicMood: Predicting the mood of music from song lyrics using machine learning

Nov 01, 2016
Sebastian Raschka

Sentiment prediction of contemporary music can have a wide-range of applications in modern society, for instance, selecting music for public institutions such as hospitals or restaurants to potentially improve the emotional well-being of personnel, patients, and customers, respectively. In this project, music recommendation system built upon on a naive Bayes classifier, trained to predict the sentiment of songs based on song lyrics alone. The experimental results show that music corresponding to a happy mood can be detected with high precision based on text features obtained from song lyrics.

* 9 pages, 5 figures 

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