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Challenges for Reinforcement Learning in Healthcare

Mar 09, 2021
Elsa Riachi, Muhammad Mamdani, Michael Fralick, Frank Rudzicz

Many healthcare decisions involve navigating through a multitude of treatment options in a sequential and iterative manner to find an optimal treatment pathway with the goal of an optimal patient outcome. Such optimization problems may be amenable to reinforcement learning. A reinforcement learning agent could be trained to provide treatment recommendations for physicians, acting as a decision support tool. However, a number of difficulties arise when using RL beyond benchmark environments, such as specifying the reward function, choosing an appropriate state representation and evaluating the learned policy.


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Teach Me to Explain: A Review of Datasets for Explainable NLP

Mar 01, 2021
Sarah Wiegreffe, Ana Marasović

Explainable NLP (ExNLP) has increasingly focused on collecting human-annotated explanations. These explanations are used downstream in three ways: as data augmentation to improve performance on a predictive task, as a loss signal to train models to produce explanations for their predictions, and as a means to evaluate the quality of model-generated explanations. In this review, we identify three predominant classes of explanations (highlights, free-text, and structured), organize the literature on annotating each type, point to what has been learned to date, and give recommendations for collecting ExNLP datasets in the future.

* Version 2: added missing references, changed the NLI example in Table 1, and corrected typos 

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Online learning in MDPs with side information

Jun 26, 2014
Yasin Abbasi-Yadkori, Gergely Neu

We study online learning of finite Markov decision process (MDP) problems when a side information vector is available. The problem is motivated by applications such as clinical trials, recommendation systems, etc. Such applications have an episodic structure, where each episode corresponds to a patient/customer. Our objective is to compete with the optimal dynamic policy that can take side information into account. We propose a computationally efficient algorithm and show that its regret is at most $O(\sqrt{T})$, where $T$ is the number of rounds. To best of our knowledge, this is the first regret bound for this setting.


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Discovering long term dependencies in noisy time series data using deep learning

Nov 15, 2020
Alexey Kurochkin

Time series modelling is essential for solving tasks such as predictive maintenance, quality control and optimisation. Deep learning is widely used for solving such problems. When managing complex manufacturing process with neural networks, engineers need to know why machine learning model made specific decision and what are possible outcomes of following model recommendation. In this paper we develop framework for capturing and explaining temporal dependencies in time series data using deep neural networks and test it on various synthetic and real world datasets.


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Diversity-Preserving K-Armed Bandits, Revisited

Oct 05, 2020
Hédi Hadiji, Sébastien Gerchinovitz, Jean-Michel Loubes, Gilles Stoltz

We consider the bandit-based framework for diversity-preserving recommendations introduced by Celis et al. (2019), who approached it mainly by a reduction to the setting of linear bandits. We design a UCB algorithm using the specific structure of the setting and show that it enjoys a bounded distribution-dependent regret in the natural cases when the optimal mixed actions put some probability mass on all actions (i.e., when diversity is desirable). Simulations illustrate this fact. We also provide regret lower bounds and briefly discuss distribution-free regret bounds.


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Is Image Memorability Prediction Solved?

Jan 31, 2019
Shay Perera, Ayellet Tal, Lihi Zelnik-Manor

This paper deals with the prediction of the memorability of a given image. We start by proposing an algorithm that reaches human-level performance on the LaMem dataset - the only large scale benchmark for memorability prediction. The suggested algorithm is based on three observations we make regarding convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that affect memorability prediction. Having reached human-level performance we were humbled, and asked ourselves whether indeed we have resolved memorability prediction - and answered this question in the negative. We studied a few factors and made some recommendations that should be taken into account when designing the next benchmark.


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Predicting Airbnb Rental Prices Using Multiple Feature Modalities

Dec 13, 2021
Aditya Ahuja, Aditya Lahiri, Aniruddha Das

Figuring out the price of a listed Airbnb rental is an important and difficult task for both the host and the customer. For the former, it can enable them to set a reasonable price without compromising on their profits. For the customer, it helps understand the key drivers for price and also provides them with similarly priced places. This price prediction regression task can also have multiple downstream uses, such as in recommendation of similar rentals based on price. We propose to use geolocation, temporal, visual and natural language features to create a reliable and accurate price prediction algorithm.


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A Cognitive Science perspective for learning how to design meaningful user experiences and human-centered technology

Jun 02, 2021
Sara Kingsley

This paper reviews literature in cognitive science, human-computer interaction (HCI) and natural-language processing (NLP) to consider how analogical reasoning (AR) could help inform the design of communication and learning technologies, as well as online communities and digital platforms. First, analogical reasoning (AR) is defined, and use-cases of AR in the computing sciences are presented. The concept of schema is introduced, along with use-cases in computing. Finally, recommendations are offered for future work on using analogical reasoning and schema methods in the computing sciences.


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Personal Health Knowledge Graphs for Patients

Mar 31, 2020
Nidhi Rastogi, Mohammed J. Zaki

Existing patient data analytics platforms fail to incorporate information that has context, is personal, and topical to patients. For a recommendation system to give a suitable response to a query or to derive meaningful insights from patient data, it should consider personal information about the patient's health history, including but not limited to their preferences, locations, and life choices that are currently applicable to them. In this review paper, we critique existing literature in this space and also discuss the various research challenges that come with designing, building, and operationalizing a personal health knowledge graph (PHKG) for patients.

* 3 pages, workshop paper 

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