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Ethical Machine Learning in Health Care

Oct 08, 2020
Irene Y. Chen, Emma Pierson, Sherri Rose, Shalmali Joshi, Kadija Ferryman, Marzyeh Ghassemi

The use of machine learning (ML) in health care raises numerous ethical concerns, especially as models can amplify existing health inequities. Here, we outline ethical considerations for equitable ML in the advancement of health care. Specifically, we frame ethics of ML in health care through the lens of social justice. We describe ongoing efforts and outline challenges in a proposed pipeline of ethical ML in health, ranging from problem selection to post-deployment considerations. We close by summarizing recommendations to address these challenges.

* Annual Reviews in Biomedical Data Science 2021 

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A Fuzzy Logic System to Analyze a Student's Lifestyle

Nov 08, 2016
Sourish Ghosh, Aaditya Sanjay Boob, Nishant Nikhil, Nayan Raju Vysyaraju, Ankit Kumar

A college student's life can be primarily categorized into domains such as education, health, social and other activities which may include daily chores and travelling time. Time management is crucial for every student. A self realisation of one's daily time expenditure in various domains is therefore essential to maximize one's effective output. This paper presents how a mobile application using Fuzzy Logic and Global Positioning System (GPS) analyzes a student's lifestyle and provides recommendations and suggestions based on the results.

* To appear at ICACI 2017 

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Challenges for Reinforcement Learning in Healthcare

Mar 09, 2021
Elsa Riachi, Muhammad Mamdani, Michael Fralick, Frank Rudzicz

Many healthcare decisions involve navigating through a multitude of treatment options in a sequential and iterative manner to find an optimal treatment pathway with the goal of an optimal patient outcome. Such optimization problems may be amenable to reinforcement learning. A reinforcement learning agent could be trained to provide treatment recommendations for physicians, acting as a decision support tool. However, a number of difficulties arise when using RL beyond benchmark environments, such as specifying the reward function, choosing an appropriate state representation and evaluating the learned policy.

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Teach Me to Explain: A Review of Datasets for Explainable NLP

Mar 01, 2021
Sarah Wiegreffe, Ana Marasović

Explainable NLP (ExNLP) has increasingly focused on collecting human-annotated explanations. These explanations are used downstream in three ways: as data augmentation to improve performance on a predictive task, as a loss signal to train models to produce explanations for their predictions, and as a means to evaluate the quality of model-generated explanations. In this review, we identify three predominant classes of explanations (highlights, free-text, and structured), organize the literature on annotating each type, point to what has been learned to date, and give recommendations for collecting ExNLP datasets in the future.

* Version 2: added missing references, changed the NLI example in Table 1, and corrected typos 

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Online learning in MDPs with side information

Jun 26, 2014
Yasin Abbasi-Yadkori, Gergely Neu

We study online learning of finite Markov decision process (MDP) problems when a side information vector is available. The problem is motivated by applications such as clinical trials, recommendation systems, etc. Such applications have an episodic structure, where each episode corresponds to a patient/customer. Our objective is to compete with the optimal dynamic policy that can take side information into account. We propose a computationally efficient algorithm and show that its regret is at most $O(\sqrt{T})$, where $T$ is the number of rounds. To best of our knowledge, this is the first regret bound for this setting.

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Discovering long term dependencies in noisy time series data using deep learning

Nov 15, 2020
Alexey Kurochkin

Time series modelling is essential for solving tasks such as predictive maintenance, quality control and optimisation. Deep learning is widely used for solving such problems. When managing complex manufacturing process with neural networks, engineers need to know why machine learning model made specific decision and what are possible outcomes of following model recommendation. In this paper we develop framework for capturing and explaining temporal dependencies in time series data using deep neural networks and test it on various synthetic and real world datasets.

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Diversity-Preserving K-Armed Bandits, Revisited

Oct 05, 2020
Hédi Hadiji, Sébastien Gerchinovitz, Jean-Michel Loubes, Gilles Stoltz

We consider the bandit-based framework for diversity-preserving recommendations introduced by Celis et al. (2019), who approached it mainly by a reduction to the setting of linear bandits. We design a UCB algorithm using the specific structure of the setting and show that it enjoys a bounded distribution-dependent regret in the natural cases when the optimal mixed actions put some probability mass on all actions (i.e., when diversity is desirable). Simulations illustrate this fact. We also provide regret lower bounds and briefly discuss distribution-free regret bounds.

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Is Image Memorability Prediction Solved?

Jan 31, 2019
Shay Perera, Ayellet Tal, Lihi Zelnik-Manor

This paper deals with the prediction of the memorability of a given image. We start by proposing an algorithm that reaches human-level performance on the LaMem dataset - the only large scale benchmark for memorability prediction. The suggested algorithm is based on three observations we make regarding convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that affect memorability prediction. Having reached human-level performance we were humbled, and asked ourselves whether indeed we have resolved memorability prediction - and answered this question in the negative. We studied a few factors and made some recommendations that should be taken into account when designing the next benchmark.

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