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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

SAR-Net: A Scenario-Aware Ranking Network for PersonalizedFair Recommendation in Hundreds of Travel Scenarios

Oct 13, 2021
Qijie Shen, Wanjie Tao, Jing Zhang, Hong Wen, Zulong Chen, Quan Lu

The travel marketing platform of Alibaba serves an indispensable role for hundreds of different travel scenarios from Fliggy, Taobao, Alipay apps, etc. To provide personalized recommendation service for users visiting different scenarios, there are two critical issues to be carefully addressed. First, since the traffic characteristics of different scenarios, it is very challenging to train a unified model to serve all. Second, during the promotion period, the exposure of some specific items will be re-weighted due to manual intervention, resulting in biased logs, which will degrade the ranking model trained using these biased data. In this paper, we propose a novel Scenario-Aware Ranking Network (SAR-Net) to address these issues. SAR-Net harvests the abundant data from different scenarios by learning users' cross-scenario interests via two specific attention modules, which leverage the scenario features and item features to modulate the user behavior features, respectively. Then, taking the encoded features of previous module as input, a scenario-specific linear transformation layer is adopted to further extract scenario-specific features, followed by two groups of debias expert networks, i.e., scenario-specific experts and scenario-shared experts. They output intermediate results independently, which are further fused into the final result by a multi-scenario gating module. In addition, to mitigate the data fairness issue caused by manual intervention, we propose the concept of Fairness Coefficient (FC) to measures the importance of individual sample and use it to reweigh the prediction in the debias expert networks. Experiments on an offline dataset covering over 80 million users and 1.55 million travel items and an online A/B test demonstrate the effectiveness of our SAR-Net and its superiority over state-of-the-art methods.

* Accepted at CIKM 2021 

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Are Quantum Computers Practical Yet? A Case for Feature Selection in Recommender Systems using Tensor Networks

May 12, 2022
Artyom Nikitin, Andrei Chertkov, Rafael Ballester-Ripoll, Ivan Oseledets, Evgeny Frolov

Collaborative filtering models generally perform better than content-based filtering models and do not require careful feature engineering. However, in the cold-start scenario collaborative information may be scarce or even unavailable, whereas the content information may be abundant, but also noisy and expensive to acquire. Thus, selection of particular features that improve cold-start recommendations becomes an important and non-trivial task. In the recent approach by Nembrini et al., the feature selection is driven by the correlational compatibility between collaborative and content-based models. The problem is formulated as a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) which, due to its NP-hard complexity, is solved using Quantum Annealing on a quantum computer provided by D-Wave. Inspired by the reported results, we contend the idea that current quantum annealers are superior for this problem and instead focus on classical algorithms. In particular, we tackle QUBO via TTOpt, a recently proposed black-box optimizer based on tensor networks and multilinear algebra. We show the computational feasibility of this method for large problems with thousands of features, and empirically demonstrate that the solutions found are comparable to the ones obtained with D-Wave across all examined datasets.

* Added affiliation. Fixed table references 

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FUTURE-AI: Guiding Principles and Consensus Recommendations for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence in Future Medical Imaging

Sep 21, 2021
Karim Lekadir, Richard Osuala, Catherine Gallin, Noussair Lazrak, Kaisar Kushibar, Gianna Tsakou, Susanna Aussó, Leonor Cerdá Alberich, Konstantinos Marias, Manolis Tskinakis, Sara Colantonio, Nickolas Papanikolaou, Zohaib Salahuddin, Henry C Woodruff, Philippe Lambin, Luis Martí-Bonmatí

The recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) combined with the extensive amount of data generated by today's clinical systems, has led to the development of imaging AI solutions across the whole value chain of medical imaging, including image reconstruction, medical image segmentation, image-based diagnosis and treatment planning. Notwithstanding the successes and future potential of AI in medical imaging, many stakeholders are concerned of the potential risks and ethical implications of imaging AI solutions, which are perceived as complex, opaque, and difficult to comprehend, utilise, and trust in critical clinical applications. Despite these concerns and risks, there are currently no concrete guidelines and best practices for guiding future AI developments in medical imaging towards increased trust, safety and adoption. To bridge this gap, this paper introduces a careful selection of guiding principles drawn from the accumulated experiences, consensus, and best practices from five large European projects on AI in Health Imaging. These guiding principles are named FUTURE-AI and its building blocks consist of (i) Fairness, (ii) Universality, (iii) Traceability, (iv) Usability, (v) Robustness and (vi) Explainability. In a step-by-step approach, these guidelines are further translated into a framework of concrete recommendations for specifying, developing, evaluating, and deploying technically, clinically and ethically trustworthy AI solutions into clinical practice.

* 46 pages, v2, removed typo 

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Towards the bio-personalization of music recommendation systems: A single-sensor EEG biomarker of subjective music preference

Sep 21, 2016
Dimitrios A. Adamos, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Nikolaos A. Laskaris

Recent advances in biosensors technology and mobile electroencephalographic (EEG) interfaces have opened new application fields for cognitive monitoring. A computable biomarker for the assessment of spontaneous aesthetic brain responses during music listening is introduced here. It derives from well-established measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and quantifies the music-induced alterations in the dynamic relationships between brain rhythms. During a stage of exploratory analysis, and using the signals from a suitably designed experiment, we established the biomarker, which acts on brain activations recorded over the left prefrontal cortex and focuses on the functional coupling between high-beta and low-gamma oscillations. Based on data from an additional experimental paradigm, we validated the introduced biomarker and showed its relevance for expressing the subjective aesthetic appreciation of a piece of music. Our approach resulted in an affordable tool that can promote human-machine interaction and, by serving as a personalized music annotation strategy, can be potentially integrated into modern flexible music recommendation systems. Keywords: Cross-frequency coupling; Human-computer interaction; Brain-computer interface

* Information Sciences, Volumes 343 - 344, 20 May 2016, Pages 94 - 108 

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Accelerating Offline Reinforcement Learning Application in Real-Time Bidding and Recommendation: Potential Use of Simulation

Sep 17, 2021
Haruka Kiyohara, Kosuke Kawakami, Yuta Saito

In recommender systems (RecSys) and real-time bidding (RTB) for online advertisements, we often try to optimize sequential decision making using bandit and reinforcement learning (RL) techniques. In these applications, offline reinforcement learning (offline RL) and off-policy evaluation (OPE) are beneficial because they enable safe policy optimization using only logged data without any risky online interaction. In this position paper, we explore the potential of using simulation to accelerate practical research of offline RL and OPE, particularly in RecSys and RTB. Specifically, we discuss how simulation can help us conduct empirical research of offline RL and OPE. We take a position to argue that we should effectively use simulations in the empirical research of offline RL and OPE. To refute the counterclaim that experiments using only real-world data are preferable, we first point out the underlying risks and reproducibility issue in real-world experiments. Then, we describe how these issues can be addressed by using simulations. Moreover, we show how to incorporate the benefits of both real-world and simulation-based experiments to defend our position. Finally, we also present an open challenge to further facilitate practical research of offline RL and OPE in RecSys and RTB, with respect to public simulation platforms. As a possible solution for the issue, we show our ongoing open source project and its potential use case. We believe that building and utilizing simulation-based evaluation platforms for offline RL and OPE will be of great interest and relevance for the RecSys and RTB community.

* SimuRec workshop at RecSys2021 

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Spoken Language Interaction with Robots: Research Issues and Recommendations, Report from the NSF Future Directions Workshop

Nov 11, 2020
Matthew Marge, Carol Espy-Wilson, Nigel Ward

With robotics rapidly advancing, more effective human-robot interaction is increasingly needed to realize the full potential of robots for society. While spoken language must be part of the solution, our ability to provide spoken language interaction capabilities is still very limited. The National Science Foundation accordingly convened a workshop, bringing together speech, language, and robotics researchers to discuss what needs to be done. The result is this report, in which we identify key scientific and engineering advances needed. Our recommendations broadly relate to eight general themes. First, meeting human needs requires addressing new challenges in speech technology and user experience design. Second, this requires better models of the social and interactive aspects of language use. Third, for robustness, robots need higher-bandwidth communication with users and better handling of uncertainty, including simultaneous consideration of multiple hypotheses and goals. Fourth, more powerful adaptation methods are needed, to enable robots to communicate in new environments, for new tasks, and with diverse user populations, without extensive re-engineering or the collection of massive training data. Fifth, since robots are embodied, speech should function together with other communication modalities, such as gaze, gesture, posture, and motion. Sixth, since robots operate in complex environments, speech components need access to rich yet efficient representations of what the robot knows about objects, locations, noise sources, the user, and other humans. Seventh, since robots operate in real time, their speech and language processing components must also. Eighth, in addition to more research, we need more work on infrastructure and resources, including shareable software modules and internal interfaces, inexpensive hardware, baseline systems, and diverse corpora.

* 35 pages, 6 figures, Final report from the NSF Future Directions Workshop on Speech for Robotics, held in October 2019, College Park, MD. Workshop website: https://isr.umd.edu/2019-SFRW 

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SAR-Net: A Scenario-Aware Ranking Network for Personalized Fair Recommendation in Hundreds of Travel Scenarios

Oct 19, 2021
Qijie Shen, Wanjie Tao, Jing Zhang, Hong Wen, Zulong Chen, Quan Lu

The travel marketing platform of Alibaba serves an indispensable role for hundreds of different travel scenarios from Fliggy, Taobao, Alipay apps, etc. To provide personalized recommendation service for users visiting different scenarios, there are two critical issues to be carefully addressed. First, since the traffic characteristics of different scenarios, it is very challenging to train a unified model to serve all. Second, during the promotion period, the exposure of some specific items will be re-weighted due to manual intervention, resulting in biased logs, which will degrade the ranking model trained using these biased data. In this paper, we propose a novel Scenario-Aware Ranking Network (SAR-Net) to address these issues. SAR-Net harvests the abundant data from different scenarios by learning users' cross-scenario interests via two specific attention modules, which leverage the scenario features and item features to modulate the user behavior features, respectively. Then, taking the encoded features of previous module as input, a scenario-specific linear transformation layer is adopted to further extract scenario-specific features, followed by two groups of debias expert networks, i.e., scenario-specific experts and scenario-shared experts. They output intermediate results independently, which are further fused into the final result by a multi-scenario gating module. In addition, to mitigate the data fairness issue caused by manual intervention, we propose the concept of Fairness Coefficient (FC) to measures the importance of individual sample and use it to reweigh the prediction in the debias expert networks. Experiments on an offline dataset covering over 80 million users and 1.55 million travel items and an online A/B test demonstrate the effectiveness of our SAR-Net and its superiority over state-of-the-art methods.

* Accepted by CIKM 2021 

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Comprehensive Taxonomies of Nature- and Bio-inspired Optimization: Inspiration versus Algorithmic Behavior, Critical Analysis and Recommendations

Feb 20, 2020
Daniel Molina, Javier Poyatos, Javier Del Ser, Salvador GarcĂ­a, Amir Hussain, Francisco Herrera

In recent years, a great variety of nature- and bio-inspired algorithms has been reported in the literature. This algorithmic family simulates different biological processes observed in Nature in order to efficiently address complex optimization problems. In the last years the number of bio-inspired optimization approaches in literature has grown considerably, reaching unprecedented levels that dark the future prospects of this field of research. This paper addresses this problem by proposing two comprehensive, principle-based taxonomies that allow researchers to organize existing and future algorithmic developments into well-defined categories, considering two different criteria: the source of inspiration and the behavior of each algorithm. Using these taxonomies we review more than three hundred publications dealing with nature-inspired and bio-inspired algorithms, and proposals falling within each of these categories are examined, leading to a critical summary of design trends and similarities between them, and the identification of the most similar classical algorithm for each reviewed paper. From our analysis we conclude that a poor relationship is often found between the natural inspiration of an algorithm and its behavior. Furthermore, similarities in terms of behavior between different algorithms are greater than what is claimed in their public disclosure: specifically, we show that more than one-third of the reviewed bio-inspired solvers are versions of classical algorithms. Grounded on the conclusions of our critical analysis, we give several recommendations and points of improvement for better methodological practices in this active and growing research field.

* 76 pages, 6 figures 

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Lights and Shadows in Evolutionary Deep Learning: Taxonomy, Critical Methodological Analysis, Cases of Study, Learned Lessons, Recommendations and Challenges

Aug 09, 2020
Aritz D. Martinez, Javier Del Ser, Esther Villar-Rodriguez, Eneko Osaba, Javier Poyatos, Siham Tabik, Daniel Molina, Francisco Herrera

Much has been said about the fusion of bio-inspired optimization algorithms and Deep Learning models for several purposes: from the discovery of network topologies and hyper-parametric configurations with improved performance for a given task, to the optimization of the model's parameters as a replacement for gradient-based solvers. Indeed, the literature is rich in proposals showcasing the application of assorted nature-inspired approaches for these tasks. In this work we comprehensively review and critically examine contributions made so far based on three axes, each addressing a fundamental question in this research avenue: a) optimization and taxonomy (Why?), including a historical perspective, definitions of optimization problems in Deep Learning, and a taxonomy associated with an in-depth analysis of the literature, b) critical methodological analysis (How?), which together with two case studies, allows us to address learned lessons and recommendations for good practices following the analysis of the literature, and c) challenges and new directions of research (What can be done, and what for?). In summary, three axes - optimization and taxonomy, critical analysis, and challenges - which outline a complete vision of a merger of two technologies drawing up an exciting future for this area of fusion research.

* 64 pages, 18 figures, under review for its consideration in Information Fusion journal 

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Questioning causality on sex, gender and COVID-19, and identifying bias in large-scale data-driven analyses: the Bias Priority Recommendations and Bias Catalog for Pandemics

Apr 29, 2021
Natalia DĂ­az-RodrĂ­guez, RĹ«ta BinkytÄ—-SadauskienÄ—, Wafae Bakkali, Sannidhi Bookseller, Paola Tubaro, Andrius Bacevicius, Raja Chatila

The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred a large amount of observational studies reporting linkages between the risk of developing severe COVID-19 or dying from it, and sex and gender. By reviewing a large body of related literature and conducting a fine grained analysis based on sex-disaggregated data of 61 countries spanning 5 continents, we discover several confounding factors that could possibly explain the supposed male vulnerability to COVID-19. We thus highlight the challenge of making causal claims based on available data, given the lack of statistical significance and potential existence of biases. Informed by our findings on potential variables acting as confounders, we contribute a broad overview on the issues bias, explainability and fairness entail in data-driven analyses. Thus, we outline a set of discriminatory policy consequences that could, based on such results, lead to unintended discrimination. To raise awareness on the dimensionality of such foreseen impacts, we have compiled an encyclopedia-like reference guide, the Bias Catalog for Pandemics (BCP), to provide definitions and emphasize realistic examples of bias in general, and within the COVID-19 pandemic context. These are categorized within a division of bias families and a 2-level priority scale, together with preventive steps. In addition, we facilitate the Bias Priority Recommendations on how to best use and apply this catalog, and provide guidelines in order to address real world research questions. The objective is to anticipate and avoid disparate impact and discrimination, by considering causality, explainability, bias and techniques to mitigate the latter. With these, we hope to 1) contribute to designing and conducting fair and equitable data-driven studies and research; and 2) interpret and draw meaningful and actionable conclusions from these.


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