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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Contextual-Bandit Based Personalized Recommendation with Time-Varying User Interests

Feb 29, 2020
Xiao Xu, Fang Dong, Yanghua Li, Shaojian He, Xin Li

A contextual bandit problem is studied in a highly non-stationary environment, which is ubiquitous in various recommender systems due to the time-varying interests of users. Two models with disjoint and hybrid payoffs are considered to characterize the phenomenon that users' preferences towards different items vary differently over time. In the disjoint payoff model, the reward of playing an arm is determined by an arm-specific preference vector, which is piecewise-stationary with asynchronous and distinct changes across different arms. An efficient learning algorithm that is adaptive to abrupt reward changes is proposed and theoretical regret analysis is provided to show that a sublinear scaling of regret in the time length $T$ is achieved. The algorithm is further extended to a more general setting with hybrid payoffs where the reward of playing an arm is determined by both an arm-specific preference vector and a joint coefficient vector shared by all arms. Empirical experiments are conducted on real-world datasets to verify the advantages of the proposed learning algorithms against baseline ones in both settings.

* Accepted by AAAI 20 

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Doubly Robust Collaborative Targeted Learning for Recommendation on Data Missing Not at Random

Mar 19, 2022
Peng Wu, Haoxuan Li, Yan Lyu, Xiao-Hua Zhou

In recommender systems, the feedback data received is always missing not at random (MNAR), which poses challenges for accurate rating prediction. To address this issue, many recent studies have been conducted on the doubly robust (DR) method and its variants to reduce bias. However, theoretical analysis shows that the DR method has a relatively large variance, while that of the error imputation-based (EIB) method is smaller. In this paper, we propose {\bf DR-TMLE} that effectively captures the merits of both EIB and DR, by leveraging the targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) technique. DR-TMLE first obtains an initial EIB estimator and then updates the error imputation model along with the bias-reduced direction. Furthermore, we propose a novel RCT-free collaborative targeted learning algorithm for DR-TMLE, called {\bf DR-TMLE-TL}, which updates the propensity model adaptively to reduce the bias of imputed errors. Both theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methods compared with existing debiasing methods.

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Learning over No-Preferred and Preferred Sequence of Items for Robust Recommendation (Extended Abstract)

Feb 26, 2022
Aleksandra Burashnikova, Yury Maximov, Marianne Clausel, Charlotte Laclau, Franck Iutzeler, Massih-Reza Amini

This paper is an extended version of [Burashnikova et al., 2021, arXiv: 2012.06910], where we proposed a theoretically supported sequential strategy for training a large-scale Recommender System (RS) over implicit feedback, mainly in the form of clicks. The proposed approach consists in minimizing pairwise ranking loss over blocks of consecutive items constituted by a sequence of non-clicked items followed by a clicked one for each user. We present two variants of this strategy where model parameters are updated using either the momentum method or a gradient-based approach. To prevent updating the parameters for an abnormally high number of clicks over some targeted items (mainly due to bots), we introduce an upper and a lower threshold on the number of updates for each user. These thresholds are estimated over the distribution of the number of blocks in the training set. They affect the decision of RS by shifting the distribution of items that are shown to the users. Furthermore, we provide a convergence analysis of both algorithms and demonstrate their practical efficiency over six large-scale collections with respect to various ranking measures.

* 7 pages, 2 tables; extended abstract accepted to IJCAI 2022. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2012.06910, arXiv:1902.08495 

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Amortized Auto-Tuning: Cost-Efficient Transfer Optimization for Hyperparameter Recommendation

Jun 17, 2021
Yuxin Xiao, Eric P. Xing, Willie Neiswanger

With the surge in the number of hyperparameters and training times of modern machine learning models, hyperparameter tuning is becoming increasingly expensive. Although methods have been proposed to speed up tuning via knowledge transfer, they typically require the final performance of hyperparameters and do not focus on low-fidelity information. Nevertheless, this common practice is suboptimal and can incur an unnecessary use of resources. It is more cost-efficient to instead leverage the low-fidelity tuning observations to measure inter-task similarity and transfer knowledge from existing to new tasks accordingly. However, performing multi-fidelity tuning comes with its own challenges in the transfer setting: the noise in the additional observations and the need for performance forecasting. Therefore, we conduct a thorough analysis of the multi-task multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization framework, which leads to the best instantiation--amortized auto-tuning (AT2). We further present an offline-computed 27-task hyperparameter recommendation (HyperRec) database to serve the community. Extensive experiments on HyperRec and other real-world databases illustrate the effectiveness of our AT2 method.

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Machine Learning for Intrusion Detection in Industrial Control Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Recommendations

Feb 24, 2022
Muhammad Azmi Umer, Khurum Nazir Junejo, Muhammad Taha Jilani, Aditya P. Mathur

Methods from machine learning are being applied to design Industrial Control Systems resilient to cyber-attacks. Such methods focus on two major areas: the detection of intrusions at the network-level using the information acquired through network packets, and detection of anomalies at the physical process level using data that represents the physical behavior of the system. This survey focuses on four types of methods from machine learning in use for intrusion and anomaly detection, namely, supervised, semi-supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. Literature available in the public domain was carefully selected, analyzed, and placed in a 7-dimensional space for ease of comparison. The survey is targeted at researchers, students, and practitioners. Challenges associated in using the methods and research gaps are identified and recommendations are made to fill the gaps.

* International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 2022, 100516, ISSN 1874-5482 

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Compositional Embeddings Using Complementary Partitions for Memory-Efficient Recommendation Systems

Sep 04, 2019
Hao-Jun Michael Shi, Dheevatsa Mudigere, Maxim Naumov, Jiyan Yang

Modern deep learning-based recommendation systems exploit hundreds to thousands of different categorical features, each with millions of different categories ranging from clicks to posts. To respect the natural diversity within the categorical data, embeddings map each category to a unique dense representation within an embedded space. Since each categorical feature could take on as many as tens of millions of different possible categories, the embedding tables form the primary memory bottleneck during both training and inference. We propose a novel approach for reducing the embedding size in an end-to-end fashion by exploiting complementary partitions of the category set to produce a unique embedding vector for each category without explicit definition. By storing multiple smaller embedding tables based on each complementary partition and combining embeddings from each table, we define a unique embedding for each category at smaller cost. This approach may be interpreted as using a specific fixed codebook to ensure uniqueness of each category's representation. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach over the hashing trick for reducing the size of the embedding tables in terms of model loss and accuracy, while retaining a similar reduction in the number of parameters.

* 20 pages, 11 figures, 4 tables 

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Semantically Constrained Memory Allocation (SCMA) for Embedding in Efficient Recommendation Systems

Feb 24, 2021
Aditya Desai, Yanzhou Pan, Kuangyuan Sun, Li Chou, Anshumali Shrivastava

Deep learning-based models are utilized to achieve state-of-the-art performance for recommendation systems. A key challenge for these models is to work with millions of categorical classes or tokens. The standard approach is to learn end-to-end, dense latent representations or embeddings for each token. The resulting embeddings require large amounts of memory that blow up with the number of tokens. Training and inference with these models create storage, and memory bandwidth bottlenecks leading to significant computing and energy consumption when deployed in practice. To this end, we present the problem of \textit{Memory Allocation} under budget for embeddings and propose a novel formulation of memory shared embedding, where memory is shared in proportion to the overlap in semantic information. Our formulation admits a practical and efficient randomized solution with Locality sensitive hashing based Memory Allocation (LMA). We demonstrate a significant reduction in the memory footprint while maintaining performance. In particular, our LMA embeddings achieve the same performance compared to standard embeddings with a 16$\times$ reduction in memory footprint. Moreover, LMA achieves an average improvement of over 0.003 AUC across different memory regimes than standard DLRM models on Criteo and Avazu datasets

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Maximizing Cumulative User Engagement in Sequential Recommendation: An Online Optimization Perspective

Jun 02, 2020
Yifei Zhao, Yu-Hang Zhou, Mingdong Ou, Huan Xu, Nan Li

To maximize cumulative user engagement (e.g. cumulative clicks) in sequential recommendation, it is often needed to tradeoff two potentially conflicting objectives, that is, pursuing higher immediate user engagement (e.g., click-through rate) and encouraging user browsing (i.e., more items exposured). Existing works often study these two tasks separately, thus tend to result in sub-optimal results. In this paper, we study this problem from an online optimization perspective, and propose a flexible and practical framework to explicitly tradeoff longer user browsing length and high immediate user engagement. Specifically, by considering items as actions, user's requests as states and user leaving as an absorbing state, we formulate each user's behavior as a personalized Markov decision process (MDP), and the problem of maximizing cumulative user engagement is reduced to a stochastic shortest path (SSP) problem. Meanwhile, with immediate user engagement and quit probability estimation, it is shown that the SSP problem can be efficiently solved via dynamic programming. Experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Moreover, this approach is deployed at a large E-commerce platform, achieved over 7% improvement of cumulative clicks.

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Aligning Hotel Embeddings using Domain Adaptation for Next-Item Recommendation

Aug 31, 2021
Ioannis Partalas

In online platforms it is often the case to have multiple brands under the same group which may target different customer profiles, or have different domains. For example, in the hospitality domain, Expedia Group has multiple brands like Brand Expedia, and Wotif which have either different traveler profiles or are more relevant in a local context. In this context, learning embeddings for hotels that can be leveraged in recommendation tasks in multiple brands requires to have a common embedding that can be induced using alignment approaches. In the same time, one needs to ensure that this common embedding space does not degrade the performance in any of the brands. In this work we build upon the hotel2vec model and propose a simple regularization approach for aligning hotel embeddings of different brands via domain adaptation. We also explore alignment methods previously used in cross-lingual embeddings to align spaces of different languages. We present results on the task of next-hotel prediction using click sessions from two brands. The results show that the proposed approach can align the two embedding spaces while achieving good performance in both brands. Additionally, with respect to single-brand training we show that the proposed approach can significantly reduce training time and improve the predictive performance.

* ACM SIGIR Workshop on eCommerce, July 15, 2021, Virtual Event, Montreal, Canada 

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On Cycling Risk and Discomfort: Urban Safety Mapping and Bike Route Recommendations

May 16, 2019
David Castells-Graells, Christopher Salahub, Evangelos Pournaras

Bike usage in Smart Cities becomes paramount for sustainable urban development. Cycling provides tremendous opportunities for a more healthy lifestyle, lower energy consumption and carbon emissions as well as reduction of traffic jams. While the number of cyclists increase along with the expansion of bike sharing initiatives and infrastructures, the number of bike accidents rises drastically threatening to jeopardize the bike urban movement. This paper studies cycling risk and discomfort using a diverse spectrum of data sources about geolocated bike accidents and their severity. Empirical continuous spatial risk estimations are calculated via kernel density contours that map safety in a case study of Zurich city. The role of weather, time, accident type and severity are illustrated. Given the predominance of self-caused accidents, an open-source software artifact for personalized route recommendations is introduced. The software is also used to collect open baseline route data that are compared with alternative ones that minimize risk or discomfort. These contributions can provide invaluable insights for urban planners to improve infrastructure. They can also improve the risk awareness of existing cyclists' as well as support new cyclists, such as tourists, to safely explore a new urban environment by bike.

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