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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Primal Meaning Recommendation for Chinese Words and Phrases via Descriptions in On-line Encyclopedia

Aug 14, 2018
Zhiyuan Zhang

Polysemy is a very common phenomenon in modern languages. Most of previous work treat the multiple meanings of a word equally. However, under many circumstances, there exists a primal meaning for the word. Many of the new appearing meanings of the words are either originated from a primal meaning, or are merely literal references to the original word, e.g., apple (fruit), Apple (Inc), and Apple (movie). When constructing knowledge base from on-line encyclopedia data, it would be more efficient to be aware of the information about the importance of the senses. In this paper, we would like to explore a way to automatically recommend the primal meaning of a word based on the textual descriptions of the multiple meanings of a word from online encyclopedia websites. We propose a hybrid model that captures both the pattern of the description and the relationship between different descriptions with both distantly supervised and unsupervised models. The experiment results show that our method yields very good result with a [email protected] score of 80.6%, and a MAP of 89.0%, surpassing the Word-Sum baseline by a big margin ([email protected] is 62.7% and MAP is 76.8%).

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RecShard: Statistical Feature-Based Memory Optimization for Industry-Scale Neural Recommendation

Jan 25, 2022
Geet Sethi, Bilge Acun, Niket Agarwal, Christos Kozyrakis, Caroline Trippel, Carole-Jean Wu

We propose RecShard, a fine-grained embedding table (EMB) partitioning and placement technique for deep learning recommendation models (DLRMs). RecShard is designed based on two key observations. First, not all EMBs are equal, nor all rows within an EMB are equal in terms of access patterns. EMBs exhibit distinct memory characteristics, providing performance optimization opportunities for intelligent EMB partitioning and placement across a tiered memory hierarchy. Second, in modern DLRMs, EMBs function as hash tables. As a result, EMBs display interesting phenomena, such as the birthday paradox, leaving EMBs severely under-utilized. RecShard determines an optimal EMB sharding strategy for a set of EMBs based on training data distributions and model characteristics, along with the bandwidth characteristics of the underlying tiered memory hierarchy. In doing so, RecShard achieves over 6 times higher EMB training throughput on average for capacity constrained DLRMs. The throughput increase comes from improved EMB load balance by over 12 times and from the reduced access to the slower memory by over 87 times.

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Linguistic Analysis of Requirements of a Space Project and their Conformity with the Recommendations Proposed by a Controlled Natural Language

Jun 06, 2014
Anne Condamines, Maxime Warnier

The long term aim of the project carried out by the French National Space Agency (CNES) is to design a writing guide based on the real and regular writing of requirements. As a first step in the project, this paper proposes a lin-guistic analysis of requirements written in French by CNES engineers. The aim is to determine to what extent they conform to two rules laid down in INCOSE, a recent guide for writing requirements. Although CNES engineers are not obliged to follow any Controlled Natural Language in their writing of requirements, we believe that language regularities are likely to emerge from this task, mainly due to the writers' experience. The issue is approached using natural language processing tools to identify sentences that do not comply with INCOSE rules. We further review these sentences to understand why the recommendations cannot (or should not) always be applied when specifying large-scale projects.

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Neural or Statistical: An Empirical Study on Language Models for Chinese Input Recommendation on Mobile

Jul 09, 2019
Hainan Zhang, Yanyan Lan, Jiafeng Guo, Jun Xu, Xueqi Cheng

Chinese input recommendation plays an important role in alleviating human cost in typing Chinese words, especially in the scenario of mobile applications. The fundamental problem is to predict the conditional probability of the next word given the sequence of previous words. Therefore, statistical language models, i.e.~n-grams based models, have been extensively used on this task in real application. However, the characteristics of extremely different typing behaviors usually lead to serious sparsity problem, even n-gram with smoothing will fail. A reasonable approach to tackle this problem is to use the recently proposed neural models, such as probabilistic neural language model, recurrent neural network and word2vec. They can leverage more semantically similar words for estimating the probability. However, there is no conclusion on which approach of the two will work better in real application. In this paper, we conduct an extensive empirical study to show the differences between statistical and neural language models. The experimental results show that the two different approach have individual advantages, and a hybrid approach will bring a significant improvement.

* LNCS2017 

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Learning Self-Modulating Attention in Continuous Time Space with Applications to Sequential Recommendation

Mar 30, 2022
Chao Chen, Haoyu Geng, Nianzu Yang, Junchi Yan, Daiyue Xue, Jianping Yu, Xiaokang Yang

User interests are usually dynamic in the real world, which poses both theoretical and practical challenges for learning accurate preferences from rich behavior data. Among existing user behavior modeling solutions, attention networks are widely adopted for its effectiveness and relative simplicity. Despite being extensively studied, existing attentions still suffer from two limitations: i) conventional attentions mainly take into account the spatial correlation between user behaviors, regardless the distance between those behaviors in the continuous time space; and ii) these attentions mostly provide a dense and undistinguished distribution over all past behaviors then attentively encode them into the output latent representations. This is however not suitable in practical scenarios where a user's future actions are relevant to a small subset of her/his historical behaviors. In this paper, we propose a novel attention network, named self-modulating attention, that models the complex and non-linearly evolving dynamic user preferences. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on top-N sequential recommendation tasks, and the results on three large-scale real-world datasets show that our model can achieve state-of-the-art performance.

* Published in ICML 2021 

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Context-Aware Target Apps Selection and Recommendation for Enhancing Personal Mobile Assistants

Jan 09, 2021
Mohammad Aliannejadi, Hamed Zamani, Fabio Crestani, W. Bruce Croft

Users install many apps on their smartphones, raising issues related to information overload for users and resource management for devices. Moreover, the recent increase in the use of personal assistants has made mobile devices even more pervasive in users' lives. This paper addresses two research problems that are vital for developing effective personal mobile assistants: target apps selection and recommendation. The former is the key component of a unified mobile search system: a system that addresses the users' information needs for all the apps installed on their devices with a unified mode of access. The latter, instead, predicts the next apps that the users would want to launch. Here we focus on context-aware models to leverage the rich contextual information available to mobile devices. We design an in situ study to collect thousands of mobile queries enriched with mobile sensor data (now publicly available for research purposes). With the aid of this dataset, we study the user behavior in the context of these tasks and propose a family of context-aware neural models that take into account the sequential, temporal, and personal behavior of users. We study several state-of-the-art models and show that the proposed models significantly outperform the baselines.

* Accepted to ACM TOIS, 30 pages 

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BasConv: Aggregating Heterogeneous Interactions for Basket Recommendation with Graph Convolutional Neural Network

Jan 14, 2020
Zhiwei Liu, Mengting Wan, Stephen Guo, Kannan Achan, Philip S. Yu

Within-basket recommendation reduces the exploration time of users, where the user's intention of the basket matters. The intent of a shopping basket can be retrieved from both user-item collaborative filtering signals and multi-item correlations. By defining a basket entity to represent the basket intent, we can model this problem as a basket-item link prediction task in the User-Basket-Item~(UBI) graph. Previous work solves the problem by leveraging user-item interactions and item-item interactions simultaneously. However, collectivity and heterogeneity characteristics are hardly investigated before. Collectivity defines the semantics of each node which should be aggregated from both directly and indirectly connected neighbors. Heterogeneity comes from multi-type interactions as well as multi-type nodes in the UBI graph. To this end, we propose a new framework named \textbf{BasConv}, which is based on the graph convolutional neural network. Our BasConv model has three types of aggregators specifically designed for three types of nodes. They collectively learn node embeddings from both neighborhood and high-order context. Additionally, the interactive layers in the aggregators can distinguish different types of interactions. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets prove the effectiveness of BasConv.

* Accepted by SDM 2020 

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DeepCF: A Unified Framework of Representation Learning and Matching Function Learning in Recommender System

Jan 15, 2019
Zhi-Hong Deng, Ling Huang, Chang-Dong Wang, Jian-Huang Lai, Philip S. Yu

In general, recommendation can be viewed as a matching problem, i.e., match proper items for proper users. However, due to the huge semantic gap between users and items, it's almost impossible to directly match users and items in their initial representation spaces. To solve this problem, many methods have been studied, which can be generally categorized into two types, i.e., representation learning-based CF methods and matching function learning-based CF methods. Representation learning-based CF methods try to map users and items into a common representation space. In this case, the higher similarity between a user and an item in that space implies they match better. Matching function learning-based CF methods try to directly learn the complex matching function that maps user-item pairs to matching scores. Although both methods are well developed, they suffer from two fundamental flaws, i.e., the limited expressiveness of dot product and the weakness in capturing low-rank relations respectively. To this end, we propose a general framework named DeepCF, short for Deep Collaborative Filtering, to combine the strengths of the two types of methods and overcome such flaws. Extensive experiments on four publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DeepCF framework.

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Hierarchical Bi-Directional Self-Attention Networks for Paper Review Rating Recommendation

Nov 02, 2020
Zhongfen Deng, Hao Peng, Congying Xia, Jianxin Li, Lifang He, Philip S. Yu

Review rating prediction of text reviews is a rapidly growing technology with a wide range of applications in natural language processing. However, most existing methods either use hand-crafted features or learn features using deep learning with simple text corpus as input for review rating prediction, ignoring the hierarchies among data. In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical bi-directional self-attention Network framework (HabNet) for paper review rating prediction and recommendation, which can serve as an effective decision-making tool for the academic paper review process. Specifically, we leverage the hierarchical structure of the paper reviews with three levels of encoders: sentence encoder (level one), intra-review encoder (level two) and inter-review encoder (level three). Each encoder first derives contextual representation of each level, then generates a higher-level representation, and after the learning process, we are able to identify useful predictors to make the final acceptance decision, as well as to help discover the inconsistency between numerical review ratings and text sentiment conveyed by reviewers. Furthermore, we introduce two new metrics to evaluate models in data imbalance situations. Extensive experiments on a publicly available dataset (PeerRead) and our own collected dataset (OpenReview) demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach compared with state-of-the-art methods.

* Accepted by COLING 2020 

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Exploiting sparsity to build efficient kernel based collaborative filtering for top-N item recommendation

Dec 17, 2016
Mirko Polato, Fabio Aiolli

The increasing availability of implicit feedback datasets has raised the interest in developing effective collaborative filtering techniques able to deal asymmetrically with unambiguous positive feedback and ambiguous negative feedback. In this paper, we propose a principled kernel-based collaborative filtering method for top-N item recommendation with implicit feedback. We present an efficient implementation using the linear kernel, and we show how to generalize it to kernels of the dot product family preserving the efficiency. We also investigate on the elements which influence the sparsity of a standard cosine kernel. This analysis shows that the sparsity of the kernel strongly depends on the properties of the dataset, in particular on the long tail distribution. We compare our method with state-of-the-art algorithms achieving good results both in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.

* Under revision for Neurocomputing (Elsevier Journal) 

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