This paper is devoted to a practical method for ferroalloys consumption modeling and optimization. We consider the problem of selecting the optimal process control parameters based on the analysis of historical data from sensors. We developed approach, which predicts results of chemical reactions and give ferroalloys consumption recommendation. The main features of our method are easy interpretation and noise resistance. Our approach is based on k-means clustering algorithm, decision trees and linear regression. The main idea of the method is to identify situations where processes go similarly. For this, we propose using a k-means based dataset clustering algorithm and a classification algorithm to determine the cluster. This algorithm can be also applied to various technological processes, in this article, we demonstrate its application in metallurgy. To test the application of the proposed method, we used it to optimize ferroalloys consumption in Basic Oxygen Furnace steelmaking when finishing steel in a ladle furnace. The minimum required element content for a given steel grade was selected as the predictive model's target variable, and the required amount of the element to be added to the melt as the optimized variable. Keywords: Clustering, Machine Learning, Linear Regression, Steelmaking, Optimization, Gradient Boosting, Artificial Intelligence, Decision Trees, Recommendation services
In this work, we examine the advantages of using multiple types of behaviour in recommendation systems. Intuitively, each user has to do some implicit actions (e.g., click) before making an explicit decision (e.g., purchase). Previous studies showed that implicit and explicit feedback have different roles for a useful recommendation. However, these studies either exploit implicit and explicit behaviour separately or ignore the semantic of sequential interactions between users and items. In addition, we go from the hypothesis that a user's preference at a time is a combination of long-term and short-term interests. In this paper, we propose some Deep Learning architectures. The first one is Implicit to Explicit (ITE), to exploit users' interests through the sequence of their actions. And two versions of ITE with Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers based (BERT-based) architecture called BERT-ITE and BERT-ITE-Si, which combine users' long- and short-term preferences without and with side information to enhance user representation. The experimental results show that our models outperform previous state-of-the-art ones and also demonstrate our views on the effectiveness of exploiting the implicit to explicit order as well as combining long- and short-term preferences in two large-scale datasets.
Article 5(1)(c) of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requires that "personal data shall be [...] adequate, relevant, and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed (`data minimisation')". To date, the legal and computational definitions of `purpose limitation' and `data minimization' remain largely unclear. In particular, the interpretation of these principles is an open issue for information access systems that optimize for user experience through personalization and do not strictly require personal data collection for the delivery of basic service. In this paper, we identify a lack of a homogeneous interpretation of the data minimization principle and explore two operational definitions applicable in the context of personalization. The focus of our empirical study in the domain of recommender systems is on providing foundational insights about the (i) feasibility of different data minimization definitions, (ii) robustness of different recommendation algorithms to minimization, and (iii) performance of different minimization strategies.We find that the performance decrease incurred by data minimization might not be substantial, but that it might disparately impact different users---a finding which has implications for the viability of different formal minimization definitions. Overall, our analysis uncovers the complexities of the data minimization problem in the context of personalization and maps the remaining computational and regulatory challenges.
Characterizing temporal dependence patterns is a critical step in understanding the statistical properties of sequential data. Long Range Dependence (LRD) --- referring to long-range correlations decaying as a power law rather than exponentially w.r.t. distance --- demands a different set of tools for modeling the underlying dynamics of the sequential data. While it has been widely conjectured that LRD is present in language modeling and sequential recommendation, the amount of LRD in the corresponding sequential datasets has not yet been quantified in a scalable and model-independent manner. We propose a principled estimation procedure of LRD in sequential datasets based on established LRD theory for real-valued time series and apply it to sequences of symbols with million-item-scale dictionaries. In our measurements, the procedure estimates reliably the LRD in the behavior of users as they write Wikipedia articles and as they interact with YouTube. We further show that measuring LRD better informs modeling decisions in particular for RNNs whose ability to capture LRD is still an active area of research. The quantitative measure informs new Evolutive Recurrent Neural Networks (EvolutiveRNNs) designs, leading to state-of-the-art results on language understanding and sequential recommendation tasks at a fraction of the computational cost.
Recommender systems (RS) help users navigate large sets of items in the search for "interesting" ones. One approach to RS is Collaborative Filtering (CF), which is based on the idea that similar users are interested in similar items. Most model-based approaches to CF seek to train a machine-learning/data-mining model based on sparse data; the model is then used to provide recommendations. While most of the proposed approaches are effective for small-size situations, the combinatorial nature of the problem makes it impractical for medium-to-large instances. In this work we present a novel approach to CF that works by training a Denoising Auto-Encoder (DAE) on corrupted baskets, i.e., baskets from which one or more items have been removed. The DAE is then forced to learn to reconstruct the original basket given its corrupted input. Due to recent advancements in optimization and other technologies for training neural-network models (such as DAE), the proposed method results in a scalable and practical approach to CF. The contribution of this work is twofold: (1) to identify missing items in observed baskets and, thus, directly providing a CF model; and, (2) to construct a generative model of baskets which may be used, for instance, in simulation analysis or as part of a more complex analytical method.
The recommendation system is a software system to predict customers' unknown preferences from known preferences. In the recommendation system, customers' preferences are encoded into vectors, and finding the nearest vectors to each vector is an essential part. This vector-searching part of the problem is called a $k$-nearest neighbor problem. We give an effective algorithm to solve this problem on multiple graphics processor units (GPUs). Our algorithm consists of two parts: an $N$-body problem and a partial sort. For a algorithm of the $N$-body problem, we applied the idea of a known algorithm for the $N$-body problem in physics, although another trick is need to overcome the problem of small sized shared memory. For the partial sort, we give a novel GPU algorithm which is effective for small $k$. In our partial sort algorithm, a heap is accessed in parallel by threads with a low cost of synchronization. Both of these two parts of our algorithm utilize maximal power of coalesced memory access, so that a full bandwidth is achieved. By an experiment, we show that when the size of the problem is large, an implementation of the algorithm on two GPUs runs more than 330 times faster than a single core implementation on a latest CPU. We also show that our algorithm scales well with respect to the number of GPUs.
In this dissertation, we cover some recent advances in collaborative filtering and ranking. In chapter 1, we give a brief introduction of the history and the current landscape of collaborative filtering and ranking; chapter 2 we first talk about pointwise collaborative filtering problem with graph information, and how our proposed new method can encode very deep graph information which helps four existing graph collaborative filtering algorithms; chapter 3 is on the pairwise approach for collaborative ranking and how we speed up the algorithm to near-linear time complexity; chapter 4 is on the new listwise approach for collaborative ranking and how the listwise approach is a better choice of loss for both explicit and implicit feedback over pointwise and pairwise loss; chapter 5 is about the new regularization technique Stochastic Shared Embeddings (SSE) we proposed for embedding layers and how it is both theoretically sound and empirically effectively for 6 different tasks across recommendation and natural language processing; chapter 6 is how we introduce personalization for the state-of-the-art sequential recommendation model with the help of SSE, which plays an important role in preventing our personalized model from overfitting to the training data; chapter 7, we summarize what we have achieved so far and predict what the future directions can be; chapter 8 is the appendix to all the chapters.
Understanding what online users may pay attention to is key to content recommendation and search services. These services will benefit from a highly structured and web-scale ontology of entities, concepts, events, topics and categories. While existing knowledge bases and taxonomies embody a large volume of entities and categories, we argue that they fail to discover properly grained concepts, events and topics in the language style of online population. Neither is a logically structured ontology maintained among these notions. In this paper, we present GIANT, a mechanism to construct a user-centered, web-scale, structured ontology, containing a large number of natural language phrases conforming to user attentions at various granularities, mined from a vast volume of web documents and search click graphs. Various types of edges are also constructed to maintain a hierarchy in the ontology. We present our graph-neural-network-based techniques used in GIANT, and evaluate the proposed methods as compared to a variety of baselines. GIANT has produced the Attention Ontology, which has been deployed in various Tencent applications involving over a billion users. Online A/B testing performed on Tencent QQ Browser shows that Attention Ontology can significantly improve click-through rates in news recommendation.
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods are widely used in various fields and disciplines. While most of the research has been focused on the development and improvement of new MCDA methods, relatively limited attention has been paid to their appropriate selection for the given decision problem. Their improper application decreases the quality of recommendations, as different MCDA methods deliver inconsistent results. The current paper presents a methodological and practical framework for selecting suitable MCDA methods for a particular decision situation. A set of 56 available MCDA methods was analyzed and, based on that, a hierarchical set of methods characteristics and the rule base were obtained. This analysis, rules and modelling of the uncertainty in the decision problem description allowed to build a framework supporting the selection of a MCDA method for a given decision-making situation. The practical studies indicate consistency between the methods recommended with the proposed approach and those used by the experts in reference cases. The results of the research also showed that the proposed approach can be used as a general framework for selecting an appropriate MCDA method for a given area of decision support, even in cases of data gaps in the decision-making problem description. The proposed framework was implemented within a web platform available for public use at www.mcda.it.
Like any large software system, a full-fledged DBMS offers an overwhelming amount of configuration knobs. These range from static initialisation parameters like buffer sizes, degree of concurrency, or level of replication to complex runtime decisions like creating a secondary index on a particular column or reorganising the physical layout of the store. To simplify the configuration, industry grade DBMSs are usually shipped with various advisory tools, that provide recommendations for given workloads and machines. However, reality shows that the actual configuration, tuning, and maintenance is usually still done by a human administrator, relying on intuition and experience. Recent work on deep reinforcement learning has shown very promising results in solving problems, that require such a sense of intuition. For instance, it has been applied very successfully in learning how to play complicated games with enormous search spaces. Motivated by these achievements, in this work we explore how deep reinforcement learning can be used to administer a DBMS. First, we will describe how deep reinforcement learning can be used to automatically tune an arbitrary software system like a DBMS by defining a problem environment. Second, we showcase our concept of NoDBA at the concrete example of index selection and evaluate how well it recommends indexes for given workloads.