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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Recognising the importance of preference change: A call for a coordinated multidisciplinary research effort in the age of AI

Mar 30, 2022
Matija Franklin, Hal Ashton, Rebecca Gorman, Stuart Armstrong

As artificial intelligence becomes more powerful and a ubiquitous presence in daily life, it is imperative to understand and manage the impact of AI systems on our lives and decisions. Modern ML systems often change user behavior (e.g. personalized recommender systems learn user preferences to deliver recommendations that change online behavior). An externality of behavior change is preference change. This article argues for the establishment of a multidisciplinary endeavor focused on understanding how AI systems change preference: Preference Science. We operationalize preference to incorporate concepts from various disciplines, outlining the importance of meta-preferences and preference-change preferences, and proposing a preliminary framework for how preferences change. We draw a distinction between preference change, permissible preference change, and outright preference manipulation. A diversity of disciplines contribute unique insights to this framework.

* The AAAI-22 Workshop on AI For Behavior Change (AI4BC 2022) 
* Accepted at the AAAI-22 Workshop on AI For Behavior Change held at the Thirty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-22), 7 pages, 1 figure 

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Scalable Psychological Momentum Forecasting in Esports

Feb 15, 2020
Alfonso White, Daniela M. Romano

The world of competitive Esports and video gaming has seen and continues to experience steady growth in popularity and complexity. Correspondingly, more research on the topic is being published, ranging from social network analyses to the benchmarking of advanced artificial intelligence systems in playing against humans. In this paper, we present ongoing work on an intelligent agent recommendation engine that suggests actions to players in order to maximise success and enjoyment, both in the space of in-game choices, as well as decisions made around play session timing in the broader context. By leveraging temporal data and appropriate models, we show that a learned representation of player psychological momentum, and of tilt, can be used, in combination with player expertise, to achieve state-of-the-art performance in pre- and post-draft win prediction. Our progress toward fulfilling the potential for deriving optimal recommendations is documented.

* Proceedings of Workshop SUM '20: State-based User Modelling, The 13th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM '20), 2020 
* 8 pages, 8 figures 

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Unorganized Malicious Attacks Detection

Feb 18, 2018
Ming Pang, Wei Gao, Min Tao, Zhi-Hua Zhou

Recommender system has attracted much attention during the past decade. Many attack detection algorithms have been developed for better recommendations, mostly focusing on shilling attacks, where an attack organizer produces a large number of user profiles by the same strategy to promote or demote an item. This work considers a different attack style: unorganized malicious attacks, where attackers individually utilize a small number of user profiles to attack different items without any organizer. This attack style occurs in many real applications, yet relevant study remains open. We first formulate the unorganized malicious attacks detection as a matrix completion problem, and propose the Unorganized Malicious Attacks detection (UMA) approach, a proximal alternating splitting augmented Lagrangian method. We verify, both theoretically and empirically, the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

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TribeFlow: Mining & Predicting User Trajectories

Feb 19, 2016
Flavio Figueiredo, Bruno Ribeiro, Jussara Almeida, Christos Faloutsos

Which song will Smith listen to next? Which restaurant will Alice go to tomorrow? Which product will John click next? These applications have in common the prediction of user trajectories that are in a constant state of flux over a hidden network (e.g. website links, geographic location). What users are doing now may be unrelated to what they will be doing in an hour from now. Mindful of these challenges we propose TribeFlow, a method designed to cope with the complex challenges of learning personalized predictive models of non-stationary, transient, and time-heterogeneous user trajectories. TribeFlow is a general method that can perform next product recommendation, next song recommendation, next location prediction, and general arbitrary-length user trajectory prediction without domain-specific knowledge. TribeFlow is more accurate and up to 413x faster than top competitors.

* To Appear at WWW 2016 

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Latent Structured Ranking

Oct 16, 2012
Jason Weston, John Blitzer

Many latent (factorized) models have been proposed for recommendation tasks like collaborative filtering and for ranking tasks like document or image retrieval and annotation. Common to all those methods is that during inference the items are scored independently by their similarity to the query in the latent embedding space. The structure of the ranked list (i.e. considering the set of items returned as a whole) is not taken into account. This can be a problem because the set of top predictions can be either too diverse (contain results that contradict each other) or are not diverse enough. In this paper we introduce a method for learning latent structured rankings that improves over existing methods by providing the right blend of predictions at the top of the ranked list. Particular emphasis is put on making this method scalable. Empirical results on large scale image annotation and music recommendation tasks show improvements over existing approaches.

* Appears in Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2012) 

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Learning Representations of Hierarchical Slates in Collaborative Filtering

Sep 25, 2020
Ehtsham Elahi, Ashok Chandrashekar

We are interested in building collaborative filtering models for recommendation systems where users interact with slates instead of individual items. These slates can be hierarchical in nature. The central idea of our approach is to learn low dimensional embeddings of these slates. We present a novel way to learn these embeddings by making use of the (unknown) statistics of the underlying distribution generating the hierarchical data. Our representation learning algorithm can be viewed as a simple composition rule that can be applied recursively in a bottom-up fashion to represent arbitrarily complex hierarchical structures in terms of the representations of its constituent components. We demonstrate our ideas on two real world recommendation systems datasets including the one used for the RecSys 2019 challenge. For that dataset, we improve upon the performance achieved by the winning team's model by incorporating embeddings as features generated by our approach in their solution.

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YEDDA: A Lightweight Collaborative Text Span Annotation Tool

May 25, 2018
Jie Yang, Yue Zhang, Linwei Li, Xingxuan Li

In this paper, we introduce \textsc{Yedda}, a lightweight but efficient and comprehensive open-source tool for text span annotation. \textsc{Yedda} provides a systematic solution for text span annotation, ranging from collaborative user annotation to administrator evaluation and analysis. It overcomes the low efficiency of traditional text annotation tools by annotating entities through both command line and shortcut keys, which are configurable with custom labels. \textsc{Yedda} also gives intelligent recommendations by learning the up-to-date annotated text. An administrator client is developed to evaluate annotation quality of multiple annotators and generate detailed comparison report for each annotator pair. Experiments show that the proposed system can reduce the annotation time by half compared with existing annotation tools. And the annotation time can be further compressed by 16.47\% through intelligent recommendation.

* Accepted by ACL 2018 as demonstration paper 

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Process Mining Meets Causal Machine Learning: Discovering Causal Rules from Event Logs

Sep 03, 2020
Zahra Dasht Bozorgi, Irene Teinemaa, Marlon Dumas, Marcello La Rosa, Artem Polyvyanyy

This paper proposes an approach to analyze an event log of a business process in order to generate case-level recommendations of treatments that maximize the probability of a given outcome. Users classify the attributes in the event log into controllable and non-controllable, where the former correspond to attributes that can be altered during an execution of the process (the possible treatments). We use an action rule mining technique to identify treatments that co-occur with the outcome under some conditions. Since action rules are generated based on correlation rather than causation, we then use a causal machine learning technique, specifically uplift trees, to discover subgroups of cases for which a treatment has a high causal effect on the outcome after adjusting for confounding variables. We test the relevance of this approach using an event log of a loan application process and compare our findings with recommendations manually produced by process mining experts.

* 8 pages, 4 figures, conference 

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Markov Random Fields for Collaborative Filtering

Oct 21, 2019
Harald Steck

In this paper, we model the dependencies among the items that are recommended to a user in a collaborative-filtering problem via a Gaussian Markov Random Field (MRF). We build upon Besag's auto-normal parameterization and pseudo-likelihood, which not only enables computationally efficient learning, but also connects the areas of MRFs and sparse inverse covariance estimation with autoencoders and neighborhood models, two successful approaches in collaborative filtering. We propose a novel approximation for learning sparse MRFs, where the trade-off between recommendation-accuracy and training-time can be controlled. At only a small fraction of the training-time compared to various baselines, including deep nonlinear models, the proposed approach achieved competitive ranking-accuracy on all three well-known data-sets used in our experiments, and notably a 20% gain in accuracy on the data-set with the largest number of items.

* 33rd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2019), Vancouver, Canada 
* 9 pages 

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