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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Intelligence Graph

Jan 05, 2018
Han Xiao

In fact, there exist three genres of intelligence architectures: logics (e.g. \textit{Random Forest, A$^*$ Searching}), neurons (e.g. \textit{CNN, LSTM}) and probabilities (e.g. \textit{Naive Bayes, HMM}), all of which are incompatible to each other. However, to construct powerful intelligence systems with various methods, we propose the intelligence graph (short as \textbf{\textit{iGraph}}), which is composed by both of neural and probabilistic graph, under the framework of forward-backward propagation. By the paradigm of iGraph, we design a recommendation model with semantic principle. First, the probabilistic distributions of categories are generated from the embedding representations of users/items, in the manner of neurons. Second, the probabilistic graph infers the distributions of features, in the manner of probabilities. Last, for the recommendation diversity, we perform an expectation computation then conduct a logic judgment, in the manner of logics. Experimentally, we beat the state-of-the-art baselines and verify our conclusions.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1702.06247 

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Iterative Multi-document Neural Attention for Multiple Answer Prediction

Feb 08, 2017
Claudio Greco, Alessandro Suglia, Pierpaolo Basile, Gaetano Rossiello, Giovanni Semeraro

People have information needs of varying complexity, which can be solved by an intelligent agent able to answer questions formulated in a proper way, eventually considering user context and preferences. In a scenario in which the user profile can be considered as a question, intelligent agents able to answer questions can be used to find the most relevant answers for a given user. In this work we propose a novel model based on Artificial Neural Networks to answer questions with multiple answers by exploiting multiple facts retrieved from a knowledge base. The model is evaluated on the factoid Question Answering and top-n recommendation tasks of the bAbI Movie Dialog dataset. After assessing the performance of the model on both tasks, we try to define the long-term goal of a conversational recommender system able to interact using natural language and to support users in their information seeking processes in a personalized way.

* Paper accepted and presented at the Deep Understanding and Reasoning: A challenge for Next-generation Intelligent Agents (URANIA) workshop, held in the context of the AI*IA 2016 conference 

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Coupled Item-based Matrix Factorization

Apr 08, 2014
Fangfang Li, Guandong Xu, Longbing Cao

The essence of the challenges cold start and sparsity in Recommender Systems (RS) is that the extant techniques, such as Collaborative Filtering (CF) and Matrix Factorization (MF), mainly rely on the user-item rating matrix, which sometimes is not informative enough for predicting recommendations. To solve these challenges, the objective item attributes are incorporated as complementary information. However, most of the existing methods for inferring the relationships between items assume that the attributes are "independently and identically distributed (iid)", which does not always hold in reality. In fact, the attributes are more or less coupled with each other by some implicit relationships. Therefore, in this pa-per we propose an attribute-based coupled similarity measure to capture the implicit relationships between items. We then integrate the implicit item coupling into MF to form the Coupled Item-based Matrix Factorization (CIMF) model. Experimental results on two open data sets demonstrate that CIMF outperforms the benchmark methods.

* 7 pages submitted to AAAI2014. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1404.7467 

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One-Bit Matrix Completion with Differential Privacy

Oct 11, 2021
Zhengpin Li, Zheng Wei, Xiaojun Mao, Jian Wang

Matrix completion is a prevailing collaborative filtering method for recommendation systems that requires the data offered by users to provide personalized service. However, due to insidious attacks and unexpected inference, the release of user data often raises serious privacy concerns. Most of the existing solutions focus on improving the privacy guarantee for general matrix completion. As a special case, in recommendation systems where the observations are binary, one-bit matrix completion covers a broad range of real-life situations. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for one-bit matrix completion under the differential privacy constraint. In this framework, we develop several perturbation mechanisms and analyze the privacy-accuracy trade-off offered by each mechanism. The experiments conducted on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate that our proposed approaches can maintain high-level privacy with little loss of completion accuracy.

* We find some errors in the article 

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Language (Technology) is Power: A Critical Survey of "Bias" in NLP

May 29, 2020
Su Lin Blodgett, Solon Barocas, Hal Daumé III, Hanna Wallach

We survey 146 papers analyzing "bias" in NLP systems, finding that their motivations are often vague, inconsistent, and lacking in normative reasoning, despite the fact that analyzing "bias" is an inherently normative process. We further find that these papers' proposed quantitative techniques for measuring or mitigating "bias" are poorly matched to their motivations and do not engage with the relevant literature outside of NLP. Based on these findings, we describe the beginnings of a path forward by proposing three recommendations that should guide work analyzing "bias" in NLP systems. These recommendations rest on a greater recognition of the relationships between language and social hierarchies, encouraging researchers and practitioners to articulate their conceptualizations of "bias"---i.e., what kinds of system behaviors are harmful, in what ways, to whom, and why, as well as the normative reasoning underlying these statements---and to center work around the lived experiences of members of communities affected by NLP systems, while interrogating and reimagining the power relations between technologists and such communities.

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Fixpoint Semantics for Recursive SHACL

Sep 17, 2021
Bart Bogaerts, Maxime Jakubowski

SHACL is a W3C-proposed language for expressing structural constraints on RDF graphs. The recommendation only specifies semantics for non-recursive SHACL; recently, some efforts have been made to allow recursive SHACL schemas. In this paper, we argue that for defining and studying semantics of recursive SHACL, lessons can be learned from years of research in non-monotonic reasoning. We show that from a SHACL schema, a three-valued semantic operator can directly be obtained. Building on Approximation Fixpoint Theory (AFT), this operator immediately induces a wide variety of semantics, including a supported, stable, and well-founded semantics, related in the expected ways. By building on AFT, a rich body of theoretical results becomes directly available for SHACL. As such, the main contribution of this short paper is providing theoretical foundations for the study of recursive SHACL, which can later enable an informed decision for an extension of the W3C recommendation.

* EPTCS 345, 2021, pp. 41-47 
* In Proceedings ICLP 2021, arXiv:2109.07914 

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What Makes a Scientific Paper be Accepted for Publication?

Apr 14, 2021
Panagiotis Fytas, Georgios Rizos, Lucia Specia

Despite peer-reviewing being an essential component of academia since the 1600s, it has repeatedly received criticisms for lack of transparency and consistency. We posit that recent work in machine learning and explainable AI provide tools that enable insights into the decisions from a given peer review process. We start by extracting global explanations in the form of linguistic features that affect the acceptance of a scientific paper for publication on an open peer-review dataset. Second, since such global explanations do not justify causal interpretations, we provide a methodology for detecting confounding effects in natural language in order to generate causal explanations, under assumptions, in the form of lexicons. Our proposed linguistic explanation methodology indicates the following on a case dataset of ICLR submissions: a) the organising committee follows, for the most part, the recommendations of reviewers, and, b) the paper's main characteristics that led to reviewers recommending acceptance for publication are originality, clarity and substance.

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Patterns for Representing Knowledge Graphs to Communicate Situational Knowledge of Service Robots

Jan 26, 2021
Shengchen Zhang, Zixuan Wang, Chaoran Chen, Yi Dai, Lyumanshan Ye, Xiaohua Sun

Service robots are envisioned to be adaptive to their working environment based on situational knowledge. Recent research focused on designing visual representation of knowledge graphs for expert users. However, how to generate an understandable interface for non-expert users remains to be explored. In this paper, we use knowledge graphs (KGs) as a common ground for knowledge exchange and develop a pattern library for designing KG interfaces for non-expert users. After identifying the types of robotic situational knowledge from the literature, we present a formative study in which participants used cards to communicate the knowledge for given scenarios. We iteratively coded the results and identified patterns for representing various types of situational knowledge. To derive design recommendations for applying the patterns, we prototyped a lab service robot and conducted Wizard-of-Oz testing. The patterns and recommendations could provide useful guidance in designing knowledge-exchange interfaces for robots.

* 12 pages, 13 figures. Published in CHI 2021 

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Contextual Multi-armed Bandit Algorithm for Semiparametric Reward Model

Jan 31, 2019
Gi-Soo Kim, Myunghee Cho Paik

Contextual multi-armed bandit (MAB) algorithms have been shown promising for maximizing cumulative rewards in sequential decision tasks such as news article recommendation systems, web page ad placement algorithms, and mobile health. However, most of the proposed contextual MAB algorithms assume linear relationships between the reward and the context of the action. This paper proposes a new contextual MAB algorithm for a relaxed, semiparametric reward model that supports nonstationarity. The proposed method is less restrictive, easier to implement and faster than two alternative algorithms that consider the same model, while achieving a tight regret upper bound. We prove that the high-probability upper bound of the regret incurred by the proposed algorithm has the same order as the Thompson sampling algorithm for linear reward models. The proposed and existing algorithms are evaluated via simulation and also applied to Yahoo! news article recommendation log data.

* 17 pages, 2 figures 

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