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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Adaptive Matrix Completion for the Users and the Items in Tail

Apr 22, 2019
Mohit Sharma, George Karypis

Recommender systems are widely used to recommend the most appealing items to users. These recommendations can be generated by applying collaborative filtering methods. The low-rank matrix completion method is the state-of-the-art collaborative filtering method. In this work, we show that the skewed distribution of ratings in the user-item rating matrix of real-world datasets affects the accuracy of matrix-completion-based approaches. Also, we show that the number of ratings that an item or a user has positively correlates with the ability of low-rank matrix-completion-based approaches to predict the ratings for the item or the user accurately. Furthermore, we use these insights to develop four matrix completion-based approaches, i.e., Frequency Adaptive Rating Prediction (FARP), Truncated Matrix Factorization (TMF), Truncated Matrix Factorization with Dropout (TMF + Dropout) and Inverse Frequency Weighted Matrix Factorization (IFWMF), that outperforms traditional matrix-completion-based approaches for the users and the items with few ratings in the user-item rating matrix.

* 7 pages, 3 figures, ACM WWW'19 

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How to Effectively Identify and Communicate Person-Targeting Media Bias in Daily News Consumption?

Oct 18, 2021
Felix Hamborg, Timo Spinde, Kim Heinser, Karsten Donnay, Bela Gipp

Slanted news coverage strongly affects public opinion. This is especially true for coverage on politics and related issues, where studies have shown that bias in the news may influence elections and other collective decisions. Due to its viable importance, news coverage has long been studied in the social sciences, resulting in comprehensive models to describe it and effective yet costly methods to analyze it, such as content analysis. We present an in-progress system for news recommendation that is the first to automate the manual procedure of content analysis to reveal person-targeting biases in news articles reporting on policy issues. In a large-scale user study, we find very promising results regarding this interdisciplinary research direction. Our recommender detects and reveals substantial frames that are actually present in individual news articles. In contrast, prior work rather only facilitates the visibility of biases, e.g., by distinguishing left- and right-wing outlets. Further, our study shows that recommending news articles that differently frame an event significantly improves respondents' awareness of bias.

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An Adaptive Hybrid Active Learning Strategy with Free Ratings in Collaborative Filtering

Mar 11, 2022
Alireza Gharahighehi, Felipe Kenji Nakano, Celine Vens

Recommender systems are information retrieval methods that predict user preferences to personalize services. These systems use the feedback and the ratings provided by users to model the behavior of users and to generate recommendations. Typically, the ratings are quite sparse, i.e., only a small fraction of items are rated by each user. To address this issue and enhance the performance, active learning strategies can be used to select the most informative items to be rated. This rating elicitation procedure enriches the interaction matrix with informative ratings and therefore assists the recommender system to better model the preferences of the users. In this paper, we evaluate various non-personalized and personalized rating elicitation strategies. We also propose a hybrid strategy that adaptively combines a non-personalized and a personalized strategy. Furthermore, we propose a new procedure to obtain free ratings based on the side information of the items. We evaluate these ideas on the MovieLens dataset. The experiments reveal that our proposed hybrid strategy outperforms the strategies from the literature. We also propose the extent to which free ratings are obtained, improving further the performance and also the user experience.

* Intellisys 2022 

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Learning by Repetition: Stochastic Multi-armed Bandits under Priming Effect

Jun 18, 2020
Priyank Agrawal, Theja Tulabandhula

We study the effect of persistence of engagement on learning in a stochastic multi-armed bandit setting. In advertising and recommendation systems, repetition effect includes a wear-in period, where the user's propensity to reward the platform via a click or purchase depends on how frequently they see the recommendation in the recent past. It also includes a counteracting wear-out period, where the user's propensity to respond positively is dampened if the recommendation was shown too many times recently. Priming effect can be naturally modelled as a temporal constraint on the strategy space, since the reward for the current action depends on historical actions taken by the platform. We provide novel algorithms that achieves sublinear regret in time and the relevant wear-in/wear-out parameters. The effect of priming on the regret upper bound is also additive, and we get back a guarantee that matches popular algorithms such as the UCB1 and Thompson sampling when there is no priming effect. Our work complements recent work on modeling time varying rewards, delays and corruptions in bandits, and extends the usage of rich behavior models in sequential decision making settings.

* Appears in the 36th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2020) 

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Review Regularized Neural Collaborative Filtering

Aug 20, 2020
Zhimeng Pan, Wenzheng Tao, Qingyao Ai

In recent years, text-aware collaborative filtering methods have been proposed to address essential challenges in recommendations such as data sparsity, cold start problem, and long-tail distribution. However, many of these text-oriented methods rely heavily on the availability of text information for every user and item, which obviously does not hold in real-world scenarios. Furthermore, specially designed network structures for text processing are highly inefficient for on-line serving and are hard to integrate into current systems. In this paper, we propose a flexible neural recommendation framework, named Review Regularized Recommendation, short as R3. It consists of a neural collaborative filtering part that focuses on prediction output, and a text processing part that serves as a regularizer. This modular design incorporates text information as richer data sources in the training phase while being highly friendly for on-line serving as it needs no on-the-fly text processing in serving time. Our preliminary results show that by using a simple text processing approach, it could achieve better prediction performance than state-of-the-art text-aware methods.

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BPR: Bayesian Personalized Ranking from Implicit Feedback

May 09, 2012
Steffen Rendle, Christoph Freudenthaler, Zeno Gantner, Lars Schmidt-Thieme

Item recommendation is the task of predicting a personalized ranking on a set of items (e.g. websites, movies, products). In this paper, we investigate the most common scenario with implicit feedback (e.g. clicks, purchases). There are many methods for item recommendation from implicit feedback like matrix factorization (MF) or adaptive knearest-neighbor (kNN). Even though these methods are designed for the item prediction task of personalized ranking, none of them is directly optimized for ranking. In this paper we present a generic optimization criterion BPR-Opt for personalized ranking that is the maximum posterior estimator derived from a Bayesian analysis of the problem. We also provide a generic learning algorithm for optimizing models with respect to BPR-Opt. The learning method is based on stochastic gradient descent with bootstrap sampling. We show how to apply our method to two state-of-the-art recommender models: matrix factorization and adaptive kNN. Our experiments indicate that for the task of personalized ranking our optimization method outperforms the standard learning techniques for MF and kNN. The results show the importance of optimizing models for the right criterion.

* Appears in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2009) 

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High Quality Related Search Query Suggestions using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Aug 10, 2021
Praveen Kumar Bodigutla

"High Quality Related Search Query Suggestions" task aims at recommending search queries which are real, accurate, diverse, relevant and engaging. Obtaining large amounts of query-quality human annotations is expensive. Prior work on supervised query suggestion models suffered from selection and exposure bias, and relied on sparse and noisy immediate user-feedback (e.g., clicks), leading to low quality suggestions. Reinforcement Learning techniques employed to reformulate a query using terms from search results, have limited scalability to large-scale industry applications. To recommend high quality related search queries, we train a Deep Reinforcement Learning model to predict the query a user would enter next. The reward signal is composed of long-term session-based user feedback, syntactic relatedness and estimated naturalness of generated query. Over the baseline supervised model, our proposed approach achieves a significant relative improvement in terms of recommendation diversity (3%), down-stream user-engagement (4.2%) and per-sentence word repetitions (82%).

* Multi-Armed Bandits and Reinforcement Learning: Advancing Decision Making in E-Commerce and Beyond at KDD 2021 

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Validating Clustering Frameworks for Electric Load Demand Profiles

Feb 26, 2021
Mayank Jain, Tarek AlSkaif, Soumyabrata Dev

Large-scale deployment of smart meters has made it possible to collect sufficient and high-resolution data of residential electric demand profiles. Clustering analysis of these profiles is important to further analyze and comment on electricity consumption patterns. Although many clustering techniques have been proposed in the literature over the years, it is often noticed that different techniques fit best for different datasets. To identify the most suitable technique, standard clustering validity indices are often used. These indices focus primarily on the intrinsic characteristics of the clustering results. Moreover, different indices often give conflicting recommendations which can only be clarified with heuristics about the dataset and/or the expected cluster structures -- information that is rarely available in practical situations. This paper presents a novel scheme to validate and compare the clustering results objectively. Additionally, the proposed scheme considers all the steps prior to the clustering algorithm, including the pre-processing and dimensionality reduction steps, in order to provide recommendations over the complete framework. Accordingly, the proposed strategy is shown to provide better, unbiased, and uniform recommendations as compared to the standard Clustering Validity Indices.

* Published in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 2021 

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Collaborative Translational Metric Learning

Jun 04, 2019
Chanyoung Park, Donghyun Kim, Xing Xie, Hwanjo Yu

Recently, matrix factorization-based recommendation methods have been criticized for the problem raised by the triangle inequality violation. Although several metric learning-based approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, existing approaches typically project each user to a single point in the metric space, and thus do not suffice for properly modeling the intensity and the heterogeneity of user-item relationships in implicit feedback. In this paper, we propose TransCF to discover such latent user-item relationships embodied in implicit user-item interactions. Inspired by the translation mechanism popularized by knowledge graph embedding, we construct user-item specific translation vectors by employing the neighborhood information of users and items, and translate each user toward items according to the user's relationships with the items. Our proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art methods for top-N recommendation on seven real-world data by up to 17% in terms of hit ratio. We also conduct extensive qualitative evaluations on the translation vectors learned by our proposed method to ascertain the benefit of adopting the translation mechanism for implicit feedback-based recommendations.

* ICDM 2018 Full Paper 

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SVP-CF: Selection via Proxy for Collaborative Filtering Data

Jul 11, 2021
Noveen Sachdeva, Carole-Jean Wu, Julian McAuley

We study the practical consequences of dataset sampling strategies on the performance of recommendation algorithms. Recommender systems are generally trained and evaluated on samples of larger datasets. Samples are often taken in a naive or ad-hoc fashion: e.g. by sampling a dataset randomly or by selecting users or items with many interactions. As we demonstrate, commonly-used data sampling schemes can have significant consequences on algorithm performance -- masking performance deficiencies in algorithms or altering the relative performance of algorithms, as compared to models trained on the complete dataset. Following this observation, this paper makes the following main contributions: (1) characterizing the effect of sampling on algorithm performance, in terms of algorithm and dataset characteristics (e.g. sparsity characteristics, sequential dynamics, etc.); and (2) designing SVP-CF, which is a data-specific sampling strategy, that aims to preserve the relative performance of models after sampling, and is especially suited to long-tail interaction data. Detailed experiments show that SVP-CF is more accurate than commonly used sampling schemes in retaining the relative ranking of different recommendation algorithms.

* 11 pages, 3 figures, accepted at the SubSetML workshop at ICML '21 (Link:

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