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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

ObjectNav Revisited: On Evaluation of Embodied Agents Navigating to Objects

Jun 23, 2020
Dhruv Batra, Aaron Gokaslan, Aniruddha Kembhavi, Oleksandr Maksymets, Roozbeh Mottaghi, Manolis Savva, Alexander Toshev, Erik Wijmans

We revisit the problem of Object-Goal Navigation (ObjectNav). In its simplest form, ObjectNav is defined as the task of navigating to an object, specified by its label, in an unexplored environment. In particular, the agent is initialized at a random location and pose in an environment and asked to find an instance of an object category, e.g., find a chair, by navigating to it. As the community begins to show increased interest in semantic goal specification for navigation tasks, a number of different often-inconsistent interpretations of this task are emerging. This document summarizes the consensus recommendations of this working group on ObjectNav. In particular, we make recommendations on subtle but important details of evaluation criteria (for measuring success when navigating towards a target object), the agent's embodiment parameters, and the characteristics of the environments within which the task is carried out. Finally, we provide a detailed description of the instantiation of these recommendations in challenges organized at the Embodied AI workshop at CVPR 2020 \url{http://embodied-ai.org} .


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Learning Contextual Bandits in a Non-stationary Environment

May 23, 2018
Qingyun Wu, Naveen Iyer, Hongning Wang

Multi-armed bandit algorithms have become a reference solution for handling the explore/exploit dilemma in recommender systems, and many other important real-world problems, such as display advertisement. However, such algorithms usually assume a stationary reward distribution, which hardly holds in practice as users' preferences are dynamic. This inevitably costs a recommender system consistent suboptimal performance. In this paper, we consider the situation where the underlying distribution of reward remains unchanged over (possibly short) epochs and shifts at unknown time instants. In accordance, we propose a contextual bandit algorithm that detects possible changes of environment based on its reward estimation confidence and updates its arm selection strategy respectively. Rigorous upper regret bound analysis of the proposed algorithm demonstrates its learning effectiveness in such a non-trivial environment. Extensive empirical evaluations on both synthetic and real-world datasets for recommendation confirm its practical utility in a changing environment.

* 10 pages, 13 figures, To appear on ACM Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (SIGIR) 2018 

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Fitting a deeply-nested hierarchical model to a large book review dataset using a moment-based estimator

Jun 01, 2018
Ningshan Zhang, Kyle Schmaus, Patrick O. Perry

We consider a particular instance of a common problem in recommender systems: using a database of book reviews to inform user-targeted recommendations. In our dataset, books are categorized into genres and sub-genres. To exploit this nested taxonomy, we use a hierarchical model that enables information pooling across across similar items at many levels within the genre hierarchy. The main challenge in deploying this model is computational: the data sizes are large, and fitting the model at scale using off-the-shelf maximum likelihood procedures is prohibitive. To get around this computational bottleneck, we extend a moment-based fitting procedure proposed for fitting single-level hierarchical models to the general case of arbitrarily deep hierarchies. This extension is an order of magnetite faster than standard maximum likelihood procedures. The fitting method can be deployed beyond recommender systems to general contexts with deeply-nested hierarchical generalized linear mixed models.

* 32 pages, 14 figures 

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Optimizing generalized Gini indices for fairness in rankings

Apr 14, 2022
Virginie Do, Nicolas Usunier

There is growing interest in designing recommender systems that aim at being fair towards item producers or their least satisfied users. Inspired by the domain of inequality measurement in economics, this paper explores the use of generalized Gini welfare functions (GGFs) as a means to specify the normative criterion that recommender systems should optimize for. GGFs weight individuals depending on their ranks in the population, giving more weight to worse-off individuals to promote equality. Depending on these weights, GGFs minimize the Gini index of item exposure to promote equality between items, or focus on the performance on specific quantiles of least satisfied users. GGFs for ranking are challenging to optimize because they are non-differentiable. We resolve this challenge by leveraging tools from non-smooth optimization and projection operators used in differentiable sorting. We present experiments using real datasets with up to 15k users and items, which show that our approach obtains better trade-offs than the baselines on a variety of recommendation tasks and fairness criteria.

* Accepted to SIGIR 2022 

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In-game Residential Home Planning via Visual Context-aware Global Relation Learning

Feb 23, 2021
Lijuan Liu, Yin Yang, Yi Yuan, Tianjia Shao, He Wang, Kun Zhou

In this paper, we propose an effective global relation learning algorithm to recommend an appropriate location of a building unit for in-game customization of residential home complex. Given a construction layout, we propose a visual context-aware graph generation network that learns the implicit global relations among the scene components and infers the location of a new building unit. The proposed network takes as input the scene graph and the corresponding top-view depth image. It provides the location recommendations for a newly-added building units by learning an auto-regressive edge distribution conditioned on existing scenes. We also introduce a global graph-image matching loss to enhance the awareness of essential geometry semantics of the site. Qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate that the recommended location well reflects the implicit spatial rules of components in the residential estates, and it is instructive and practical to locate the building units in the 3D scene of the complex construction.


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Making Neural Networks Interpretable with Attribution: Application to Implicit Signals Prediction

Aug 26, 2020
Darius Afchar, Romain Hennequin

Explaining recommendations enables users to understand whether recommended items are relevant to their needs and has been shown to increase their trust in the system. More generally, if designing explainable machine learning models is key to check the sanity and robustness of a decision process and improve their efficiency, it however remains a challenge for complex architectures, especially deep neural networks that are often deemed "black-box". In this paper, we propose a novel formulation of interpretable deep neural networks for the attribution task. Differently to popular post-hoc methods, our approach is interpretable by design. Using masked weights, hidden features can be deeply attributed, split into several input-restricted sub-networks and trained as a boosted mixture of experts. Experimental results on synthetic data and real-world recommendation tasks demonstrate that our method enables to build models achieving close predictive performances to their non-interpretable counterparts, while providing informative attribution interpretations.

* 14th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems (RecSys '20) 

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Which Emoji Talks Best for My Picture?

Aug 27, 2018
Anurag Illendula, Kv Manohar, Manish Reddy Yedulla

Emojis have evolved as complementary sources for expressing emotion in social-media platforms where posts are mostly composed of texts and images. In order to increase the expressiveness of the social media posts, users associate relevant emojis with their posts. Incorporating domain knowledge has improved machine understanding of text. In this paper, we investigate whether domain knowledge for emoji can improve the accuracy of emoji recommendation task in case of multimedia posts composed of image and text. Our emoji recommendation can suggest accurate emojis by exploiting both visual and textual content from social media posts as well as domain knowledge from Emojinet. Experimental results using pre-trained image classifiers and pre-trained word embedding models on Twitter dataset show that our results outperform the current state-of-the-art by 9.6\%. We also present a user study evaluation of our recommendation system on a set of images chosen from MSCOCO dataset.

* Accepted at the 2018 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI '18), December 3-6, 2018, Santiago de Chile 

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Information Theoretic Counterfactual Learning from Missing-Not-At-Random Feedback

Sep 06, 2020
Zifeng Wang, Xi Chen, Rui Wen, Shao-Lun Huang, Ercan E. Kuruoglu, Yefeng Zheng

Counterfactual learning for dealing with missing-not-at-random data (MNAR) is an intriguing topic in the recommendation literature, since MNAR data are ubiquitous in modern recommender systems. Missing-at-random (MAR) data, namely randomized controlled trials (RCTs), are usually required by most previous counterfactual learning methods. However, the execution of RCTs is extraordinarily expensive in practice. To circumvent the use of RCTs, we build an information theoretic counterfactual variational information bottleneck (CVIB), as an alternative for debiasing learning without RCTs. By separating the task-aware mutual information term in the original information bottleneck Lagrangian into factual and counterfactual parts, we derive a contrastive information loss and an additional output confidence penalty, which facilitates balanced learning between the factual and counterfactual domains. Empirical evaluation on real-world datasets shows that our CVIB significantly enhances both shallow and deep models, which sheds light on counterfactual learning in recommendation that goes beyond RCTs.


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