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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Food Recipe Recommendation Based on Ingredients Detection Using Deep Learning

Mar 13, 2022
Md. Shafaat Jamil Rokon, Md Kishor Morol, Ishra Binte Hasan, A. M. Saif, Rafid Hussain Khan

Food is essential for human survival, and people always try to taste different types of delicious recipes. Frequently, people choose food ingredients without even knowing their names or pick up some food ingredients that are not obvious to them from a grocery store. Knowing which ingredients can be mixed to make a delicious food recipe is essential. Selecting the right recipe by choosing a list of ingredients is very difficult for a beginner cook. However, it can be a problem even for experts. One such example is recognising objects through image processing. Although this process is complex due to different food ingredients, traditional approaches will lead to an inaccuracy rate. These problems can be solved by machine learning and deep learning approaches. In this paper, we implemented a model for food ingredients recognition and designed an algorithm for recommending recipes based on recognised ingredients. We made a custom dataset consisting of 9856 images belonging to 32 different food ingredients classes. Convolution Neural Network (CNN) model was used to identify food ingredients, and for recipe recommendations, we have used machine learning. We achieved an accuracy of 94 percent, which is quite impressive.

* Accepted at ICCA 2022 

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From Scattered Sources to Comprehensive Technology Landscape: A Recommendation-based Retrieval Approach

Dec 09, 2021
Chi Thang Duong, Dimitri Percia David, Ljiljana Dolamic, Alain Mermoud, Vincent Lenders, Karl Aberer

Mapping the technology landscape is crucial for market actors to take informed investment decisions. However, given the large amount of data on the Web and its subsequent information overload, manually retrieving information is a seemingly ineffective and incomplete approach. In this work, we propose an end-to-end recommendation based retrieval approach to support automatic retrieval of technologies and their associated companies from raw Web data. This is a two-task setup involving (i) technology classification of entities extracted from company corpus, and (ii) technology and company retrieval based on classified technologies. Our proposed framework approaches the first task by leveraging DistilBERT which is a state-of-the-art language model. For the retrieval task, we introduce a recommendation-based retrieval technique to simultaneously support retrieving related companies, technologies related to a specific company and companies relevant to a technology. To evaluate these tasks, we also construct a data set that includes company documents and entities extracted from these documents together with company categories and technology labels. Experiments show that our approach is able to return 4 times more relevant companies while outperforming traditional retrieval baseline in retrieving technologies.


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User Embedding based Neighborhood Aggregation Method for Inductive Recommendation

Feb 16, 2021
Rahul Ragesh, Sundararajan Sellamanickam, Vijay Lingam, Arun Iyer, Ramakrishna Bairi

We consider the problem of learning latent features (aka embedding) for users and items in a recommendation setting. Given only a user-item interaction graph, the goal is to recommend items for each user. Traditional approaches employ matrix factorization-based collaborative filtering methods. Recent methods using graph convolutional networks (e.g., LightGCN) achieve state-of-the-art performance. They learn both user and item embedding. One major drawback of most existing methods is that they are not inductive; they do not generalize for users and items unseen during training. Besides, existing network models are quite complex, difficult to train and scale. Motivated by LightGCN, we propose a graph convolutional network modeling approach for collaborative filtering CF-GCN. We solely learn user embedding and derive item embedding using light variant CF-LGCN-U performing neighborhood aggregation, making it scalable due to reduced model complexity. CF-LGCN-U models naturally possess the inductive capability for new items, and we propose a simple solution to generalize for new users. We show how the proposed models are related to LightGCN. As a by-product, we suggest a simple solution to make LightGCN inductive. We perform comprehensive experiments on several benchmark datasets and demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach. Experimental results show that similar or better generalization performance is achievable than the state of the art methods in both transductive and inductive settings.


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MIRA: A Computational Neuro-Based Cognitive Architecture Applied to Movie Recommender Systems

Feb 27, 2019
Mariana B. Santos, Amanda M. Lima, Lucas A. Silva, Felipe S. Vargas, Guilherme A. Wachs-Lopes, Paulo S. Rodrigues

The human mind is still an unknown process of neuroscience in many aspects. Nevertheless, for decades the scientific community has proposed computational models that try to simulate their parts, specific applications, or their behavior in different situations. The most complete model in this line is undoubtedly the LIDA model, proposed by Stan Franklin with the aim of serving as a generic computational architecture for several applications. The present project is inspired by the LIDA model to apply it to the process of movie recommendation, the model called MIRA (Movie Intelligent Recommender Agent) presented percentages of precision similar to a traditional model when submitted to the same assay conditions. Moreover, the proposed model reinforced the precision indexes when submitted to tests with volunteers, proving once again its performance as a cognitive model, when executed with small data volumes. Considering that the proposed model achieved a similar behavior to the traditional models under conditions expected to be similar for natural systems, it can be said that MIRA reinforces the applicability of LIDA as a path to be followed for the study and generation of computational agents inspired by neural behaviors.


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Learning Personalized Item-to-Item Recommendation Metric via Implicit Feedback

Mar 18, 2022
Trong Nghia Hoang, Anoop Deoras, Tong Zhao, Jin Li, George Karypis

This paper studies the item-to-item recommendation problem in recommender systems from a new perspective of metric learning via implicit feedback. We develop and investigate a personalizable deep metric model that captures both the internal contents of items and how they were interacted with by users. There are two key challenges in learning such model. First, there is no explicit similarity annotation, which deviates from the assumption of most metric learning methods. Second, these approaches ignore the fact that items are often represented by multiple sources of meta data and different users use different combinations of these sources to form their own notion of similarity. To address these challenges, we develop a new metric representation embedded as kernel parameters of a probabilistic model. This helps express the correlation between items that a user has interacted with, which can be used to predict user interaction with new items. Our approach hinges on the intuition that similar items induce similar interactions from the same user, thus fitting a metric-parameterized model to predict an implicit feedback signal could indirectly guide it towards finding the most suitable metric for each user. To this end, we also analyze how and when the proposed method is effective from a theoretical lens. Its empirical effectiveness is also demonstrated on several real-world datasets.

* AISTATS-22 

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Ranking Distillation: Learning Compact Ranking Models With High Performance for Recommender System

Sep 19, 2018
Jiaxi Tang, Ke Wang

We propose a novel way to train ranking models, such as recommender systems, that are both effective and efficient. Knowledge distillation (KD) was shown to be successful in image recognition to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency. We propose a KD technique for learning to rank problems, called \emph{ranking distillation (RD)}. Specifically, we train a smaller student model to learn to rank documents/items from both the training data and the supervision of a larger teacher model. The student model achieves a similar ranking performance to that of the large teacher model, but its smaller model size makes the online inference more efficient. RD is flexible because it is orthogonal to the choices of ranking models for the teacher and student. We address the challenges of RD for ranking problems. The experiments on public data sets and state-of-the-art recommendation models showed that RD achieves its design purposes: the student model learnt with RD has a model size less than half of the teacher model while achieving a ranking performance similar to the teacher model and much better than the student model learnt without RD.

* Accepted at KDD 2018 

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Represent Items by Items: An Enhanced Representation of the Target Item for Recommendation

Apr 26, 2021
Yinjiang Cai, Zeyu Cui, Shu Wu, Zhen Lei, Xibo Ma

Item-based collaborative filtering (ICF) has been widely used in industrial applications such as recommender system and online advertising. It models users' preference on target items by the items they have interacted with. Recent models use methods such as attention mechanism and deep neural network to learn the user representation and scoring function more accurately. However, despite their effectiveness, such models still overlook a problem that performance of ICF methods heavily depends on the quality of item representation especially the target item representation. In fact, due to the long-tail distribution in the recommendation, most item embeddings can not represent the semantics of items accurately and thus degrade the performance of current ICF methods. In this paper, we propose an enhanced representation of the target item which distills relevant information from the co-occurrence items. We design sampling strategies to sample fix number of co-occurrence items for the sake of noise reduction and computational cost. Considering the different importance of sampled items to the target item, we apply attention mechanism to selectively adopt the semantic information of the sampled items. Our proposed Co-occurrence based Enhanced Representation model (CER) learns the scoring function by a deep neural network with the attentive user representation and fusion of raw representation and enhanced representation of target item as input. With the enhanced representation, CER has stronger representation power for the tail items compared to the state-of-the-art ICF methods. Extensive experiments on two public benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of CER.

* 10 pages,7 figures 

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Dual Correction Strategy for Ranking Distillation in Top-N Recommender System

Sep 08, 2021
Youngjune Lee, Kee-Eung Kim

Knowledge Distillation (KD), which transfers the knowledge of a well-trained large model (teacher) to a small model (student), has become an important area of research for practical deployment of recommender systems. Recently, Relaxed Ranking Distillation (RRD) has shown that distilling the ranking information in the recommendation list significantly improves the performance. However, the method still has limitations in that 1) it does not fully utilize the prediction errors of the student model, which makes the training not fully efficient, and 2) it only distills the user-side ranking information, which provides an insufficient view under the sparse implicit feedback. This paper presents Dual Correction strategy for Distillation (DCD), which transfers the ranking information from the teacher model to the student model in a more efficient manner. Most importantly, DCD uses the discrepancy between the teacher model and the student model predictions to decide which knowledge to be distilled. By doing so, DCD essentially provides the learning guidance tailored to "correcting" what the student model has failed to accurately predict. This process is applied for transferring the ranking information from the user-side as well as the item-side to address sparse implicit user feedback. Our experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines, and ablation studies validate the effectiveness of each component.


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Recommender Systems Based on Generative Adversarial Networks: A Problem-Driven Perspective

Mar 05, 2020
Min Gao, Junwei Zhang, Junliang Yu, Jundong Li, Junhao Wen, Qingyu Xiong

Recommender systems (RS) play a very important role in various aspects of people's online life. Many companies leverage RS to help users discover new and favored items. Despite their empirical success, these systems still suffer from two main problems: data noise and data sparsity. In recent years, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have received a surge of interests in many fields because of their great potential to learn complex real data distribution, and they also provide new means to mitigate the aforementioned problems of RS. Particularly, owing to adversarial learning, the problem of data noise can be handled by adding adversarial perturbations or forcing discriminators to tell the informative and uninformative data examples apart. As for the mitigation of data sparsity issue, the GAN-based models are able to replicate the real distribution of the user-item interactions and augment the available data. To gain a comprehensive understanding of these GAN-based recommendation models, we provide a retrospective of these studies and organize them from a problem-driven perspective. Specifically, we propose a taxonomy of these models, along with a detailed description of them and their advantages. Finally, we elaborate on several open issues and expand on current trends in the GAN-based RS.

* 20 pages, 11 figures, 5 tables, the journal of Information Sciences 

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