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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Improving Transformer-based Sequential Recommenders through Preference Editing

Jun 23, 2021
Muyang Ma, Pengjie Ren, Zhumin Chen, Zhaochun Ren, Huasheng Liang, Jun Ma, Maarten de Rijke

One of the key challenges in Sequential Recommendation (SR) is how to extract and represent user preferences. Traditional SR methods rely on the next item as the supervision signal to guide preference extraction and representation. We propose a novel learning strategy, named preference editing. The idea is to force the SR model to discriminate the common and unique preferences in different sequences of interactions between users and the recommender system. By doing so, the SR model is able to learn how to identify common and unique user preferences, and thereby do better user preference extraction and representation. We propose a transformer based SR model, named MrTransformer (Multi-preference Transformer), that concatenates some special tokens in front of the sequence to represent multiple user preferences and makes sure they capture different aspects through a preference coverage mechanism. Then, we devise a preference editing-based self-supervised learning mechanism for training MrTransformer which contains two main operations: preference separation and preference recombination. The former separates the common and unique user preferences for a given pair of sequences. The latter swaps the common preferences to obtain recombined user preferences for each sequence. Based on the preference separation and preference recombination operations, we define two types of SSL loss that require that the recombined preferences are similar to the original ones, and the common preferences are close to each other. We carry out extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets. MrTransformer with preference editing significantly outperforms state-of-the-art SR methods in terms of Recall, MRR and NDCG. We find that long sequences whose user preferences are harder to extract and represent benefit most from preference editing.

* 22 pages, 2 figures 

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Linear-Time Self Attention with Codeword Histogram for Efficient Recommendation

May 28, 2021
Yongji Wu, Defu Lian, Neil Zhenqiang Gong, Lu Yin, Mingyang Yin, Jingren Zhou, Hongxia Yang

Self-attention has become increasingly popular in a variety of sequence modeling tasks from natural language processing to recommendation, due to its effectiveness. However, self-attention suffers from quadratic computational and memory complexities, prohibiting its applications on long sequences. Existing approaches that address this issue mainly rely on a sparse attention context, either using a local window, or a permuted bucket obtained by locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) or sorting, while crucial information may be lost. Inspired by the idea of vector quantization that uses cluster centroids to approximate items, we propose LISA (LInear-time Self Attention), which enjoys both the effectiveness of vanilla self-attention and the efficiency of sparse attention. LISA scales linearly with the sequence length, while enabling full contextual attention via computing differentiable histograms of codeword distributions. Meanwhile, unlike some efficient attention methods, our method poses no restriction on casual masking or sequence length. We evaluate our method on four real-world datasets for sequential recommendation. The results show that LISA outperforms the state-of-the-art efficient attention methods in both performance and speed; and it is up to 57x faster and 78x more memory efficient than vanilla self-attention.

* 11 pages. Accepted by the Web Conference 2021 (WWW '21) 

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ColdGAN: Resolving Cold Start User Recommendation by using Generative Adversarial Networks

Nov 25, 2020
Po-Lin Lai, Chih-Yun Chen, Liang-Wei Lo, Chien-Chin Chen

Mitigating the new user cold-start problem has been critical in the recommendation system for online service providers to influence user experience in decision making which can ultimately affect the intention of users to use a particular service. Previous studies leveraged various side information from users and items; however, it may be impractical due to privacy concerns. In this paper, we present ColdGAN, an end-to-end GAN based model with no use of side information to resolve this problem. The main idea of the proposed model is to train a network that learns the rating distributions of experienced users given their cold-start distributions. We further design a time-based function to restore the preferences of users to cold-start states. With extensive experiments on two real-world datasets, the results show that our proposed method achieves significantly improved performance compared with the state-of-the-art recommenders.

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Integrating User and Item Reviews in Deep Cooperative Neural Networks for Movie Recommendation

May 12, 2022
Aristeidis Karras, Christos Karras

User evaluations include a significant quantity of information across online platforms. This information source has been neglected by the majority of existing recommendation systems, despite its potential to ease the sparsity issue and enhance the quality of suggestions. This work presents a deep model for concurrently learning item attributes and user behaviour from review text. Deep Cooperative Neural Networks (DeepCoNN) is the suggested model consisting of two parallel neural networks connected in their final layers. One of the networks focuses on learning user behaviour from reviews submitted by the user, while the other network learns item attributes from user reviews. On top, a shared layer is added to connect these two networks. Similar to factorization machine approaches, the shared layer allows latent factors acquired for people and things to interact with each other. On a number of datasets, DeepCoNN surpasses all baseline recommendation systems, according to experimental findings.

* 14 pages, 2 figures, 9 tables 

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Multi-output Gaussian Processes for Uncertainty-aware Recommender Systems

Jun 08, 2021
Yinchong Yang, Florian Buettner

Recommender systems are often designed based on a collaborative filtering approach, where user preferences are predicted by modelling interactions between users and items. Many common approaches to solve the collaborative filtering task are based on learning representations of users and items, including simple matrix factorization, Gaussian process latent variable models, and neural-network based embeddings. While matrix factorization approaches fail to model nonlinear relations, neural networks can potentially capture such complex relations with unprecedented predictive power and are highly scalable. However, neither of them is able to model predictive uncertainties. In contrast, Gaussian Process based models can generate a predictive distribution, but cannot scale to large amounts of data. In this manuscript, we propose a novel approach combining the representation learning paradigm of collaborative filtering with multi-output Gaussian processes in a joint framework to generate uncertainty-aware recommendations. We introduce an efficient strategy for model training and inference, resulting in a model that scales to very large and sparse datasets and achieves competitive performance in terms of classical metrics quantifying the reconstruction error. In addition to accurately predicting user preferences, our model also provides meaningful uncertainty estimates about that prediction.

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Aesthetics, Personalization and Recommendation: A survey on Deep Learning in Fashion

Jan 20, 2021
Wei Gong, Laila Khalid

Machine learning is completely changing the trends in the fashion industry. From big to small every brand is using machine learning techniques in order to improve their revenue, increase customers and stay ahead of the trend. People are into fashion and they want to know what looks best and how they can improve their style and elevate their personality. Using Deep learning technology and infusing it with Computer Vision techniques one can do so by utilizing Brain-inspired Deep Networks, and engaging into Neuroaesthetics, working with GANs and Training them, playing around with Unstructured Data,and infusing the transformer architecture are just some highlights which can be touched with the Fashion domain. Its all about designing a system that can tell us information regarding the fashion aspect that can come in handy with the ever growing demand. Personalization is a big factor that impacts the spending choices of customers.The survey also shows remarkable approaches that encroach the subject of achieving that by divulging deep into how visual data can be interpreted and leveraged into different models and approaches. Aesthetics play a vital role in clothing recommendation as users' decision depends largely on whether the clothing is in line with their aesthetics, however the conventional image features cannot portray this directly. For that the survey also highlights remarkable models like tensor factorization model, conditional random field model among others to cater the need to acknowledge aesthetics as an important factor in Apparel recommendation.These AI inspired deep models can pinpoint exactly which certain style resonates best with their customers and they can have an understanding of how the new designs will set in with the community. With AI and machine learning your businesses can stay ahead of the fashion trends.

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Neural Representations in Hybrid Recommender Systems: Prediction versus Regularization

Oct 12, 2020
Ramin Raziperchikolaei, Tianyu Li, Young-joo Chung

Autoencoder-based hybrid recommender systems have become popular recently because of their ability to learn user and item representations by reconstructing various information sources, including users' feedback on items (e.g., ratings) and side information of users and items (e.g., users' occupation and items' title). However, existing systems still use representations learned by matrix factorization (MF) to predict the rating, while using representations learned by neural networks as the regularizer. In this paper, we define the neural representation for prediction (NRP) framework and apply it to the autoencoder-based recommendation systems. We theoretically analyze how our objective function is related to the previous MF and autoencoder-based methods and explain what it means to use neural representations as the regularizer. We also apply the NRP framework to a direct neural network structure which predicts the ratings without reconstructing the user and item information. We conduct extensive experiments on two MovieLens datasets and two real-world e-commerce datasets. The results confirm that neural representations are better for prediction than regularization and show that the NRP framework, combined with the direct neural network structure, outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in the prediction task, with less training time and memory.

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AutoCl : A Visual Interactive System for Automatic Deep Learning Classifier Recommendation Based on Models Performance

Feb 24, 2022
Fuad Ahmed, Rubayea Ferdows, Md Rafiqul Islam, Abu Raihan M. Kamal

Nowadays, deep learning (DL) models being increasingly applied to various fields, people without technical expertise and domain knowledge struggle to find an appropriate model for their task. In this paper, we introduce AutoCl a visual interactive recommender system aimed at helping non-experts to adopt an appropriate DL classifier. Our system enables users to compare the performance and behavior of multiple classifiers trained with various hyperparameter setups as well as automatically recommends a best classifier with appropriate hyperparameter. We compare features of AutoCl against several recent AutoML systems and show that it helps non-experts better in choosing DL classifier. Finally, we demonstrate use cases for image classification using publicly available dataset to show the capability of our system.

* The 28th International Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (IW-FCV), 2022 
* This research paper has accepted and presented in The 28th International Workshop on Frontiers of Computer Vision (IW-FCV). IW-FCV held fully virtual on February 21-22, 2022. See for details 

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Planting trees at the right places: Recommending suitable sites for growing trees using algorithm fusion

Sep 17, 2020
Pushpendra Rana, Lav R Varshney

Large-scale planting of trees has been proposed as a low-cost natural solution for carbon mitigation, but is hampered by poor selection of plantation sites, especially in developing countries. To aid in site selection, we develop the ePSA (e-Plantation Site Assistant) recommendation system based on algorithm fusion that combines physics-based/traditional forestry science knowledge with machine learning. ePSA assists forest range officers by identifying blank patches inside forest areas and ranking each such patch based on their tree growth potential. Experiments, user studies, and deployment results characterize the utility of the recommender system in shaping the long-term success of tree plantations as a nature climate solution for carbon mitigation in northern India and beyond.

* 22 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables, 2 supplemental tables 

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DAGNN: Demand-aware Graph Neural Networks for Session-based Recommendation

May 30, 2021
Liqi Yang, Linhan Luo, Lifeng Xin, Xiaofeng Zhang, Xinni Zhang

Session-based recommendations have been widely adopted for various online video and E-commerce Websites. Most existing approaches are intuitively proposed to discover underlying interests or preferences out of the anonymous session data. This apparently ignores the fact these sequential behaviors usually reflect session user's potential demand, i.e., a semantic level factor, and therefore how to estimate underlying demands from a session is challenging. To address aforementioned issue, this paper proposes a demand-aware graph neural networks (DAGNN). Particularly, a demand modeling component is designed to first extract session demand and the underlying multiple demands of each session is estimated using the global demand matrix. Then, the demand-aware graph neural network is designed to extract session demand graph to learn the demand-aware item embedddings for the later recommendations. The mutual information loss is further designed to enhance the quality of the learnt embeddings. Extensive experiments are evaluated on several real-world datasets and the proposed model achieves the SOTA model performance.

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