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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

A Recommender System based on the Immune Network

Mar 03, 2008
Steve Cazyer, Uwe Aickelin

The immune system is a complex biological system with a highly distributed, adaptive and self-organising nature. This paper presents an artificial immune system (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film recommendation by collaborative filtering (CF). Natural evolution and in particular the immune system have not been designed for classical optimisation. However, for this problem, we are not interested in finding a single optimum. Rather we intend to identify a sub-set of good matches on which recommendations can be based. It is our hypothesis that an AIS built on two central aspects of the biological immune system will be an ideal candidate to achieve this: Antigen - antibody interaction for matching and antibody - antibody interaction for diversity. Computational results are presented in support of this conjecture and compared to those found by other CF techniques.

* Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), pp 807-813, Honolulu, USA, 2002 

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Personalized Bundle List Recommendation

Apr 03, 2019
Jinze Bai, Chang Zhou, Junshuai Song, Xiaoru Qu, Weiting An, Zhao Li, Jun Gao

Product bundling, offering a combination of items to customers, is one of the marketing strategies commonly used in online e-commerce and offline retailers. A high-quality bundle generalizes frequent items of interest, and diversity across bundles boosts the user-experience and eventually increases transaction volume. In this paper, we formalize the personalized bundle list recommendation as a structured prediction problem and propose a bundle generation network (BGN), which decomposes the problem into quality/diversity parts by the determinantal point processes (DPPs). BGN uses a typical encoder-decoder framework with a proposed feature-aware softmax to alleviate the inadequate representation of traditional softmax, and integrates the masked beam search and DPP selection to produce high-quality and diversified bundle list with an appropriate bundle size. We conduct extensive experiments on three public datasets and one industrial dataset, including two generated from co-purchase records and the other two extracted from real-world online bundle services. BGN significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of quality, diversity and response time over all datasets. In particular, BGN improves the precision of the best competitors by 16\% on average while maintaining the highest diversity on four datasets, and yields a 3.85x improvement of response time over the best competitors in the bundle list recommendation problem.

* WWW2019, 11 pages 

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Collaborative Autoencoder for Recommender Systems

Jan 30, 2018
Qibing Li, Xiaolin Zheng, Xinyue Wu

In recent years, deep neural networks have yielded state-of-the-art performance on several tasks. Although some recent works have focused on combining deep learning with recommendation, we highlight three issues of existing works. First, most works perform deep content feature learning and resort to matrix factorization, which cannot effectively model the highly complex user-item interaction function. Second, due to the difficulty on training deep neural networks, existing models utilize a shallow architecture, and thus limit the expressive potential of deep learning. Third, neural network models are easy to overfit on the implicit setting, because negative interactions are not taken into account. To tackle these issues, we present a generic recommender framework called Neural Collaborative Autoencoder (NCAE) to perform collaborative filtering, which works well for both explicit feedback and implicit feedback. NCAE can effectively capture the relationship between interactions via a non-linear matrix factorization process. To optimize the deep architecture of NCAE, we develop a three-stage pre-training mechanism that combines supervised and unsupervised feature learning. Moreover, to prevent overfitting on the implicit setting, we propose an error reweighting module and a sparsity-aware data-augmentation strategy. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets demonstrate that NCAE can significantly advance the state-of-the-art.


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Bayesian Exploration with Heterogeneous Agents

Feb 19, 2019
Nicole Immorlica, Jieming Mao, Aleksandrs Slivkins, Zhiwei Steven Wu

It is common in recommendation systems that users both consume and produce information as they make strategic choices under uncertainty. While a social planner would balance "exploration" and "exploitation" using a multi-armed bandit algorithm, users' incentives may tilt this balance in favor of exploitation. We consider Bayesian Exploration: a simple model in which the recommendation system (the "principal") controls the information flow to the users (the "agents") and strives to incentivize exploration via information asymmetry. A single round of this model is a version of a well-known "Bayesian Persuasion game" from [Kamenica and Gentzkow]. We allow heterogeneous users, relaxing a major assumption from prior work that users have the same preferences from one time step to another. The goal is now to learn the best personalized recommendations. One particular challenge is that it may be impossible to incentivize some of the user types to take some of the actions, no matter what the principal does or how much time she has. We consider several versions of the model, depending on whether and when the user types are reported to the principal, and design a near-optimal "recommendation policy" for each version. We also investigate how the model choice and the diversity of user types impact the set of actions that can possibly be "explored" by each type.


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Can FCA-based Recommender System Suggest a Proper Classifier?

Apr 21, 2015
Yury Kashnitsky, Dmitry I. Ignatov

The paper briefly introduces multiple classifier systems and describes a new algorithm, which improves classification accuracy by means of recommendation of a proper algorithm to an object classification. This recommendation is done assuming that a classifier is likely to predict the label of the object correctly if it has correctly classified its neighbors. The process of assigning a classifier to each object is based on Formal Concept Analysis. We explain the idea of the algorithm with a toy example and describe our first experiments with real-world datasets.

* CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 1257, pp. 17-26 (2014) 
* 10 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables, ECAI 2014, workshop "What FCA can do for "Artifficial Intelligence" 

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Fatigue-aware Bandits for Dependent Click Models

Aug 22, 2020
Junyu Cao, Wei Sun, Zuo-Jun, Shen, Markus Ettl

As recommender systems send a massive amount of content to keep users engaged, users may experience fatigue which is contributed by 1) an overexposure to irrelevant content, 2) boredom from seeing too many similar recommendations. To address this problem, we consider an online learning setting where a platform learns a policy to recommend content that takes user fatigue into account. We propose an extension of the Dependent Click Model (DCM) to describe users' behavior. We stipulate that for each piece of content, its attractiveness to a user depends on its intrinsic relevance and a discount factor which measures how many similar contents have been shown. Users view the recommended content sequentially and click on the ones that they find attractive. Users may leave the platform at any time, and the probability of exiting is higher when they do not like the content. Based on user's feedback, the platform learns the relevance of the underlying content as well as the discounting effect due to content fatigue. We refer to this learning task as "fatigue-aware DCM Bandit" problem. We consider two learning scenarios depending on whether the discounting effect is known. For each scenario, we propose a learning algorithm which simultaneously explores and exploits, and characterize its regret bound.

* AAAI. 2020 

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In-Session Personalization for Talent Search

Sep 18, 2018
Sahin Cem Geyik, Vijay Dialani, Meng Meng, Ryan Smith

Previous efforts in recommendation of candidates for talent search followed the general pattern of receiving an initial search criteria and generating a set of candidates utilizing a pre-trained model. Traditionally, the generated recommendations are final, that is, the list of potential candidates is not modified unless the user explicitly changes his/her search criteria. In this paper, we are proposing a candidate recommendation model which takes into account the immediate feedback of the user, and updates the candidate recommendations at each step. This setting also allows for very uninformative initial search queries, since we pinpoint the user's intent due to the feedback during the search session. To achieve our goal, we employ an intent clustering method based on topic modeling which separates the candidate space into meaningful, possibly overlapping, subsets (which we call intent clusters) for each position. On top of the candidate segments, we apply a multi-armed bandit approach to choose which intent cluster is more appropriate for the current session. We also present an online learning scheme which updates the intent clusters within the session, due to user feedback, to achieve further personalization. Our offline experiments as well as the results from the online deployment of our solution demonstrate the benefits of our proposed methodology.

* This paper has been accepted for publication at ACM CIKM 2018 

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Cross-Market Product Recommendation

Sep 13, 2021
Hamed Bonab, Mohammad Aliannejadi, Ali Vardasbi, Evangelos Kanoulas, James Allan

We study the problem of recommending relevant products to users in relatively resource-scarce markets by leveraging data from similar, richer in resource auxiliary markets. We hypothesize that data from one market can be used to improve performance in another. Only a few studies have been conducted in this area, partly due to the lack of publicly available experimental data. To this end, we collect and release XMarket, a large dataset covering 18 local markets on 16 different product categories, featuring 52.5 million user-item interactions. We introduce and formalize the problem of cross-market product recommendation, i.e., market adaptation. We explore different market-adaptation techniques inspired by state-of-the-art domain-adaptation and meta-learning approaches and propose a novel neural approach for market adaptation, named FOREC. Our model follows a three-step procedure -- pre-training, forking, and fine-tuning -- in order to fully utilize the data from an auxiliary market as well as the target market. We conduct extensive experiments studying the impact of market adaptation on different pairs of markets. Our proposed approach demonstrates robust effectiveness, consistently improving the performance on target markets compared to competitive baselines selected for our analysis. In particular, FOREC improves on average 24% and up to 50% in terms of [email protected], compared to the NMF baseline. Our analysis and experiments suggest specific future directions in this research area. We release our data and code for academic purposes.

* Accepted in CIKM 2021 

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AutoDebias: Learning to Debias for Recommendation

May 10, 2021
Jiawei Chen, Hande Dong, Yang Qiu, Xiangnan He, Xin Xin, Liang Chen, Guli Lin, Keping Yang

Recommender systems rely on user behavior data like ratings and clicks to build personalization model. However, the collected data is observational rather than experimental, causing various biases in the data which significantly affect the learned model. Most existing work for recommendation debiasing, such as the inverse propensity scoring and imputation approaches, focuses on one or two specific biases, lacking the universal capacity that can account for mixed or even unknown biases in the data. Towards this research gap, we first analyze the origin of biases from the perspective of \textit{risk discrepancy} that represents the difference between the expectation empirical risk and the true risk. Remarkably, we derive a general learning framework that well summarizes most existing debiasing strategies by specifying some parameters of the general framework. This provides a valuable opportunity to develop a universal solution for debiasing, e.g., by learning the debiasing parameters from data. However, the training data lacks important signal of how the data is biased and what the unbiased data looks like. To move this idea forward, we propose \textit{AotoDebias} that leverages another (small) set of uniform data to optimize the debiasing parameters by solving the bi-level optimization problem with meta-learning. Through theoretical analyses, we derive the generalization bound for AutoDebias and prove its ability to acquire the appropriate debiasing strategy. Extensive experiments on two real datasets and a simulated dataset demonstrated effectiveness of AutoDebias. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/DongHande/AutoDebias}.

* Accepted by SIGIR 2021 

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Energy-Based Sequence GANs for Recommendation and Their Connection to Imitation Learning

Jun 28, 2017
Jaeyoon Yoo, Heonseok Ha, Jihun Yi, Jongha Ryu, Chanju Kim, Jung-Woo Ha, Young-Han Kim, Sungroh Yoon

Recommender systems aim to find an accurate and efficient mapping from historic data of user-preferred items to a new item that is to be liked by a user. Towards this goal, energy-based sequence generative adversarial nets (EB-SeqGANs) are adopted for recommendation by learning a generative model for the time series of user-preferred items. By recasting the energy function as the feature function, the proposed EB-SeqGANs is interpreted as an instance of maximum-entropy imitation learning.


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