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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

A Text-based Deep Reinforcement Learning Framework for Interactive Recommendation

Apr 14, 2020
Chaoyang Wang, Zhiqiang Guo, Jianjun Li, Peng Pan, Guohui Li

Due to its nature of learning from dynamic interactions and planning for long-run performance, reinforcement learning (RL) recently has received much attention in interactive recommender systems (IRSs). IRSs usually face the large discrete action space problem, which makes most of the existing RL-based recommendation methods inefficient. Moreover, data sparsity is another challenging problem that most IRSs are confronted with. While the textual information like reviews and descriptions is less sensitive to sparsity, existing RL-based recommendation methods either neglect or are not suitable for incorporating textual information. To address these two problems, in this paper, we propose a Text-based Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient framework (TDDPG-Rec) for IRSs. Specifically, we leverage textual information to map items and users into a feature space, which greatly alleviates the sparsity problem. Moreover, we design an effective method to construct an action candidate set. By the policy vector dynamically learned from TDDPG-Rec that expresses the user's preference, we can select actions from the candidate set effectively. Through experiments on three public datasets, we demonstrate that TDDPG-Rec achieves state-of-the-art performance over several baselines in a time-efficient manner.

* Accepted by ECAI 2020 

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TAGNN: Target Attentive Graph Neural Networks for Session-based Recommendation

May 06, 2020
Feng Yu, Yanqiao Zhu, Qiang Liu, Shu Wu, Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan

Session-based recommendation nowadays plays a vital role in many websites, which aims to predict users' actions based on anonymous sessions. There have emerged many studies that model a session as a sequence or a graph via investigating temporal transitions of items in a session. However, these methods compress a session into one fixed representation vector without considering the target items to be predicted. The fixed vector will restrict the representation ability of the recommender model, considering the diversity of target items and users' interests. In this paper, we propose a novel target attentive graph neural network (TAGNN) model for session-based recommendation. In TAGNN, target-aware attention adaptively activates different user interests with respect to varied target items. The learned interest representation vector varies with different target items, greatly improving the expressiveness of the model. Moreover, TAGNN harnesses the power of graph neural networks to capture rich item transitions in sessions. Comprehensive experiments conducted on real-world datasets demonstrate its superiority over state-of-the-art methods.

* 5 pages, accepted to SIGIR 2020, authors' version 

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Personalized Fashion Recommendation from Personal Social Media Data: An Item-to-Set Metric Learning Approach

May 25, 2020
Haitian Zheng, Kefei Wu, Jong-Hwi Park, Wei Zhu, Jiebo Luo

With the growth of online shopping for fashion products, accurate fashion recommendation has become a critical problem. Meanwhile, social networks provide an open and new data source for personalized fashion analysis. In this work, we study the problem of personalized fashion recommendation from social media data, i.e. recommending new outfits to social media users that fit their fashion preferences. To this end, we present an item-to-set metric learning framework that learns to compute the similarity between a set of historical fashion items of a user to a new fashion item. To extract features from multi-modal street-view fashion items, we propose an embedding module that performs multi-modality feature extraction and cross-modality gated fusion. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we collect a real-world social media dataset. Extensive experiments on the collected dataset show the superior performance of our proposed approach.

* 9 pages, 7 figures 

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Exploiting Latent Codes: Interactive Fashion Product Generation, Similar Image Retrieval, and Cross-Category Recommendation using Variational Autoencoders

Sep 02, 2020
James-Andrew Sarmiento

The rise of deep learning applications in the fashion industry has fueled advances in curating large-scale datasets to build applications for product design, image retrieval, and recommender systems. In this paper, the author proposes using Variational Autoencoder (VAE) to build an interactive fashion product application framework that allows the users to generate products with attributes according to their liking, retrieve similar styles for the same product category, and receive content-based recommendations from other categories. Fashion product images dataset containing eyewear, footwear, and bags are appropriate to illustrate that this pipeline is applicable in the booming industry of e-commerce enabling direct user interaction in specifying desired products paired with new methods for data matching, and recommendation systems by using VAE and exploiting its generated latent codes.


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FedCL: Federated Contrastive Learning for Privacy-Preserving Recommendation

Apr 21, 2022
Chuhan Wu, Fangzhao Wu, Tao Qi, Yongfeng Huang, Xing Xie

Contrastive learning is widely used for recommendation model learning, where selecting representative and informative negative samples is critical. Existing methods usually focus on centralized data, where abundant and high-quality negative samples are easy to obtain. However, centralized user data storage and exploitation may lead to privacy risks and concerns, while decentralized user data on a single client can be too sparse and biased for accurate contrastive learning. In this paper, we propose a federated contrastive learning method named FedCL for privacy-preserving recommendation, which can exploit high-quality negative samples for effective model training with privacy well protected. We first infer user embeddings from local user data through the local model on each client, and then perturb them with local differential privacy (LDP) before sending them to a central server for hard negative sampling. Since individual user embedding contains heavy noise due to LDP, we propose to cluster user embeddings on the server to mitigate the influence of noise, and the cluster centroids are used to retrieve hard negative samples from the item pool. These hard negative samples are delivered to user clients and mixed with the observed negative samples from local data as well as in-batch negatives constructed from positive samples for federated model training. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets show FedCL can empower various recommendation methods in a privacy-preserving way.


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Where to go next: Learning a Subgoal Recommendation Policy for Navigation Among Pedestrians

Feb 26, 2021
Bruno Brito, Michael Everett, Jonathan P. How, Javier Alonso-Mora

Robotic navigation in environments shared with other robots or humans remains challenging because the intentions of the surrounding agents are not directly observable and the environment conditions are continuously changing. Local trajectory optimization methods, such as model predictive control (MPC), can deal with those changes but require global guidance, which is not trivial to obtain in crowded scenarios. This paper proposes to learn, via deep Reinforcement Learning (RL), an interaction-aware policy that provides long-term guidance to the local planner. In particular, in simulations with cooperative and non-cooperative agents, we train a deep network to recommend a subgoal for the MPC planner. The recommended subgoal is expected to help the robot in making progress towards its goal and accounts for the expected interaction with other agents. Based on the recommended subgoal, the MPC planner then optimizes the inputs for the robot satisfying its kinodynamic and collision avoidance constraints. Our approach is shown to substantially improve the navigation performance in terms of number of collisions as compared to prior MPC frameworks, and in terms of both travel time and number of collisions compared to deep RL methods in cooperative, competitive and mixed multiagent scenarios.

* 8 pages, 6 figures 

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Diversity-aware Web APIs Recommendation with Compatibility Guarantee

Aug 10, 2021
Wenwen Gonga, Yulan Zhang, Xuyun Zhang, Yucong Duan, Yawei Wang, Yifei Chena, Lianyong Qi

With the ever-increasing prevalence of web APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) in enabling smart software developments, finding and composing a list of existing web APIs that can corporately fulfil the software developers' functional needs have become a promising way to develop a successful mobile app, economically and conveniently. However, the big volume and diversity of candidate web APIs put additional burden on the app developers' web APIs selection decision-makings, since it is often a challenging task to simultaneously guarantee the diversity and compatibility of the finally selected a set of web APIs. Considering this challenge, a Diversity-aware and Compatibility-driven web APIs Recommendation approach, namely DivCAR, is put forward in this paper. First, to achieve diversity, DivCAR employs random walk sampling technique on a pre-built correlation graph to generate diverse correlation subgraphs. Afterwards, with the diverse correlation subgraphs, we model the compatible web APIs recommendation problem to be a minimum group Steiner tree search problem. Through solving the minimum group Steiner tree search problem, manifold sets of compatible and diverse web APIs ranked are returned to the app developers. At last, we design and enact a set of experiments on a real-world dataset crawled from www.programmableWeb.com. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed DivCAR approach in balancing the web APIs recommendation diversity and compatibility.


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Collaborative Recommendation with Auxiliary Data: A Transfer Learning View

Jul 09, 2014
Weike Pan

Intelligent recommendation technology has been playing an increasingly important role in various industry applications such as e-commerce product promotion and Internet advertisement display. Besides users' feedbacks (e.g., numerical ratings) on items as usually exploited by some typical recommendation algorithms, there are often some additional data such as users' social circles and other behaviors. Such auxiliary data are usually related to users' preferences on items behind the numerical ratings. Collaborative recommendation with auxiliary data (CRAD) aims to leverage such additional information so as to improve the personalization services, which have received much attention from both researchers and practitioners. Transfer learning (TL) is proposed to extract and transfer knowledge from some auxiliary data in order to assist the learning task on some target data. In this paper, we consider the CRAD problem from a transfer learning view, especially on how to achieve knowledge transfer from some auxiliary data. First, we give a formal definition of transfer learning for CRAD (TL-CRAD). Second, we extend the existing categorization of TL techniques (i.e., adaptive, collective and integrative knowledge transfer algorithm styles) with three knowledge transfer strategies (i.e., prediction rule, regularization and constraint). Third, we propose a novel generic knowledge transfer framework for TL-CRAD. Fourth, we describe some representative works of each specific knowledge transfer strategy of each algorithm style in detail, which are expected to inspire further works. Finally, we conclude the paper with some summary discussions and several future directions.


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Fast Adaptively Weighted Matrix Factorization for Recommendation with Implicit Feedback

Mar 04, 2020
Jiawei Chen, Can Wang, Sheng Zhou, Qihao Shi, Jingbang Chen, Yan Feng, Chun Chen

Recommendation from implicit feedback is a highly challenging task due to the lack of the reliable observed negative data. A popular and effective approach for implicit recommendation is to treat unobserved data as negative but downweight their confidence. Naturally, how to assign confidence weights and how to handle the large number of the unobserved data are two key problems for implicit recommendation models. However, existing methods either pursuit fast learning by manually assigning simple confidence weights, which lacks flexibility and may create empirical bias in evaluating user's preference; or adaptively infer personalized confidence weights but suffer from low efficiency. To achieve both adaptive weights assignment and efficient model learning, we propose a fast adaptively weighted matrix factorization (FAWMF) based on variational auto-encoder. The personalized data confidence weights are adaptively assigned with a parameterized neural network (function) and the network can be inferred from the data. Further, to support fast and stable learning of FAWMF, a new specific batch-based learning algorithm fBGD has been developed, which trains on all feedback data but its complexity is linear to the number of observed data. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed FAWMF and its learning algorithm fBGD.


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Billion-scale Commodity Embedding for E-commerce Recommendation in Alibaba

May 24, 2018
Jizhe Wang, Pipei Huang, Huan Zhao, Zhibo Zhang, Binqiang Zhao, Dik Lun Lee

Recommender systems (RSs) have been the most important technology for increasing the business in Taobao, the largest online consumer-to-consumer (C2C) platform in China. The billion-scale data in Taobao creates three major challenges to Taobao's RS: scalability, sparsity and cold start. In this paper, we present our technical solutions to address these three challenges. The methods are based on the graph embedding framework. We first construct an item graph from users' behavior history. Each item is then represented as a vector using graph embedding. The item embeddings are employed to compute pairwise similarities between all items, which are then used in the recommendation process. To alleviate the sparsity and cold start problems, side information is incorporated into the embedding framework. We propose two aggregation methods to integrate the embeddings of items and the corresponding side information. Experimental results from offline experiments show that methods incorporating side information are superior to those that do not. Further, we describe the platform upon which the embedding methods are deployed and the workflow to process the billion-scale data in Taobao. Using online A/B test, we show that the online Click-Through-Rate (CTRs) are improved comparing to the previous recommendation methods widely used in Taobao, further demonstrating the effectiveness and feasibility of our proposed methods in Taobao's live production environment.

* 10 pages, 8 figures 

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