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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Broad Recommender System: An Efficient Nonlinear Collaborative Filtering Approach

Apr 20, 2022
Ling Huang, Can-Rong Guan, Zhen-Wei Huang, Yuefang Gao, Yingjie Kuang, Chang-Dong Wang, C. L. Philip Chen

Recently, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been widely introduced into Collaborative Filtering (CF) to produce more accurate recommendation results due to their capability of capturing the complex nonlinear relationships between items and users.However, the DNNs-based models usually suffer from high computational complexity, i.e., consuming very long training time and storing huge amount of trainable parameters. To address these problems, we propose a new broad recommender system called Broad Collaborative Filtering (BroadCF), which is an efficient nonlinear collaborative filtering approach. Instead of DNNs, Broad Learning System (BLS) is used as a mapping function to learn the complex nonlinear relationships between users and items, which can avoid the above issues while achieving very satisfactory recommendation performance. However, it is not feasible to directly feed the original rating data into BLS. To this end, we propose a user-item rating collaborative vector preprocessing procedure to generate low-dimensional user-item input data, which is able to harness quality judgments of the most similar users/items. Extensive experiments conducted on seven benchmark datasets have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed BroadCF algorithm

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New Recommendation Algorithm for Implicit Data Motivated by the Multivariate Normal Distribution

Dec 21, 2020
Markus Viljanen, Tapio Pahikkala

The goal of recommender systems is to help users find useful items from a large catalog of items by producing a list of item recommendations for every user. Data sets based on implicit data collection have a number of special characteristics. The user and item interaction matrix is often complete, i.e. every user and item pair has an interaction value or zero for no interaction, and the goal is to rank the items for every user. This study presents a simple new algorithm for implicit data that matches or outperforms baselines in accuracy. The algorithm can be motivated intuitively by the Multivariate Normal Distribution (MVN), where have a closed form expression for the ranking of non-interactions given user's interactions. The main difference to kNN and SVD baselines is that predictions are carried out using only the known interactions. Modified baselines with this trick have a better accuracy, however it also results in simpler models with fewer hyperparameters for implicit data. Our results suggest that this idea should used in Top-N recommendation with small seed sizes and the MVN is a simple way to do so.

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PARIS: Personalized Activity Recommendation for Improving Sleep Quality

Oct 26, 2021
Meghna Singh, Saksham Goel, Abhiraj Mohan, Louis Kazaglis, Jaideep Srivastava

The quality of sleep has a deep impact on people's physical and mental health. People with insufficient sleep are more likely to report physical and mental distress, activity limitation, anxiety, and pain. Moreover, in the past few years, there has been an explosion of applications and devices for activity monitoring and health tracking. Signals collected from these wearable devices can be used to study and improve sleep quality. In this paper, we utilize the relationship between physical activity and sleep quality to find ways of assisting people improve their sleep using machine learning techniques. People usually have several behavior modes that their bio-functions can be divided into. Performing time series clustering on activity data, we find cluster centers that would correlate to the most evident behavior modes for a specific subject. Activity recipes are then generated for good sleep quality for each behavior mode within each cluster. These activity recipes are supplied to an activity recommendation engine for suggesting a mix of relaxed to intense activities to subjects during their daily routines. The recommendations are further personalized based on the subjects' lifestyle constraints, i.e. their age, gender, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate, etc, with the objective of the recommendation being the improvement of that night's quality of sleep. This would in turn serve a longer-term health objective, like lowering heart rate, improving the overall quality of sleep, etc.

* 18 pages, 7 figures, Submitted to UMUAI: Special Issue on Recommender Systems for Health and Wellbeing, 2020 

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Federated Collaborative Filtering for Privacy-Preserving Personalized Recommendation System

Jan 29, 2019
Muhammad Ammad-ud-din, Elena Ivannikova, Suleiman A. Khan, Were Oyomno, Qiang Fu, Kuan Eeik Tan, Adrian Flanagan

The increasing interest in user privacy is leading to new privacy preserving machine learning paradigms. In the Federated Learning paradigm, a master machine learning model is distributed to user clients, the clients use their locally stored data and model for both inference and calculating model updates. The model updates are sent back and aggregated on the server to update the master model then redistributed to the clients. In this paradigm, the user data never leaves the client, greatly enhancing the user' privacy, in contrast to the traditional paradigm of collecting, storing and processing user data on a backend server beyond the user's control. In this paper we introduce, as far as we are aware, the first federated implementation of a Collaborative Filter. The federated updates to the model are based on a stochastic gradient approach. As a classical case study in machine learning, we explore a personalized recommendation system based on users' implicit feedback and demonstrate the method's applicability to both the MovieLens and an in-house dataset. Empirical validation confirms a collaborative filter can be federated without a loss of accuracy compared to a standard implementation, hence enhancing the user's privacy in a widely used recommender application while maintaining recommender performance.

* 12 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, submitted to a conference 

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Neural Input Search for Large Scale Recommendation Models

Jul 10, 2019
Manas R. Joglekar, Cong Li, Jay K. Adams, Pranav Khaitan, Quoc V. Le

Recommendation problems with large numbers of discrete items, such as products, webpages, or videos, are ubiquitous in the technology industry. Deep neural networks are being increasingly used for these recommendation problems. These models use embeddings to represent discrete items as continuous vectors, and the vocabulary sizes and embedding dimensions, although heavily influence the model's accuracy, are often manually selected in a heuristical manner. We present Neural Input Search (NIS), a technique for learning the optimal vocabulary sizes and embedding dimensions for categorical features. The goal is to maximize prediction accuracy subject to a constraint on the total memory used by all embeddings. Moreover, we argue that the traditional Single-size Embedding (SE), which uses the same embedding dimension for all values of a feature, suffers from inefficient usage of model capacity and training data. We propose a novel type of embedding, namely Multi-size Embedding (ME), which allows the embedding dimension to vary for different values of the feature. During training we use reinforcement learning to find the optimal vocabulary size for each feature and embedding dimension for each value of the feature. In experiments on two common types of large scale recommendation problems, i.e. retrieval and ranking problems, NIS automatically found better vocabulary and embedding sizes that result in $6.8\%$ and $1.8\%$ relative improvements on [email protected] and ROC-AUC over manually optimized ones.

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Does Recommend-Revise Produce Reliable Annotations? An Analysis on Missing Instances in DocRED

Apr 17, 2022
Quzhe Huang, Shibo Hao, Yuan Ye, Shengqi Zhu, Yansong Feng, Dongyan Zhao

DocRED is a widely used dataset for document-level relation extraction. In the large-scale annotation, a \textit{recommend-revise} scheme is adopted to reduce the workload. Within this scheme, annotators are provided with candidate relation instances from distant supervision, and they then manually supplement and remove relational facts based on the recommendations. However, when comparing DocRED with a subset relabeled from scratch, we find that this scheme results in a considerable amount of false negative samples and an obvious bias towards popular entities and relations. Furthermore, we observe that the models trained on DocRED have low recall on our relabeled dataset and inherit the same bias in the training data. Through the analysis of annotators' behaviors, we figure out the underlying reason for the problems above: the scheme actually discourages annotators from supplementing adequate instances in the revision phase. We appeal to future research to take into consideration the issues with the recommend-revise scheme when designing new models and annotation schemes. The relabeled dataset is released at \url{}, to serve as a more reliable test set of document RE models.

* ACL 2022 Main Conference 

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A Text-based Deep Reinforcement Learning Framework for Interactive Recommendation

Apr 14, 2020
Chaoyang Wang, Zhiqiang Guo, Jianjun Li, Peng Pan, Guohui Li

Due to its nature of learning from dynamic interactions and planning for long-run performance, reinforcement learning (RL) recently has received much attention in interactive recommender systems (IRSs). IRSs usually face the large discrete action space problem, which makes most of the existing RL-based recommendation methods inefficient. Moreover, data sparsity is another challenging problem that most IRSs are confronted with. While the textual information like reviews and descriptions is less sensitive to sparsity, existing RL-based recommendation methods either neglect or are not suitable for incorporating textual information. To address these two problems, in this paper, we propose a Text-based Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient framework (TDDPG-Rec) for IRSs. Specifically, we leverage textual information to map items and users into a feature space, which greatly alleviates the sparsity problem. Moreover, we design an effective method to construct an action candidate set. By the policy vector dynamically learned from TDDPG-Rec that expresses the user's preference, we can select actions from the candidate set effectively. Through experiments on three public datasets, we demonstrate that TDDPG-Rec achieves state-of-the-art performance over several baselines in a time-efficient manner.

* Accepted by ECAI 2020 

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TAGNN: Target Attentive Graph Neural Networks for Session-based Recommendation

May 06, 2020
Feng Yu, Yanqiao Zhu, Qiang Liu, Shu Wu, Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan

Session-based recommendation nowadays plays a vital role in many websites, which aims to predict users' actions based on anonymous sessions. There have emerged many studies that model a session as a sequence or a graph via investigating temporal transitions of items in a session. However, these methods compress a session into one fixed representation vector without considering the target items to be predicted. The fixed vector will restrict the representation ability of the recommender model, considering the diversity of target items and users' interests. In this paper, we propose a novel target attentive graph neural network (TAGNN) model for session-based recommendation. In TAGNN, target-aware attention adaptively activates different user interests with respect to varied target items. The learned interest representation vector varies with different target items, greatly improving the expressiveness of the model. Moreover, TAGNN harnesses the power of graph neural networks to capture rich item transitions in sessions. Comprehensive experiments conducted on real-world datasets demonstrate its superiority over state-of-the-art methods.

* 5 pages, accepted to SIGIR 2020, authors' version 

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Personalized Fashion Recommendation from Personal Social Media Data: An Item-to-Set Metric Learning Approach

May 25, 2020
Haitian Zheng, Kefei Wu, Jong-Hwi Park, Wei Zhu, Jiebo Luo

With the growth of online shopping for fashion products, accurate fashion recommendation has become a critical problem. Meanwhile, social networks provide an open and new data source for personalized fashion analysis. In this work, we study the problem of personalized fashion recommendation from social media data, i.e. recommending new outfits to social media users that fit their fashion preferences. To this end, we present an item-to-set metric learning framework that learns to compute the similarity between a set of historical fashion items of a user to a new fashion item. To extract features from multi-modal street-view fashion items, we propose an embedding module that performs multi-modality feature extraction and cross-modality gated fusion. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we collect a real-world social media dataset. Extensive experiments on the collected dataset show the superior performance of our proposed approach.

* 9 pages, 7 figures 

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Exploiting Latent Codes: Interactive Fashion Product Generation, Similar Image Retrieval, and Cross-Category Recommendation using Variational Autoencoders

Sep 02, 2020
James-Andrew Sarmiento

The rise of deep learning applications in the fashion industry has fueled advances in curating large-scale datasets to build applications for product design, image retrieval, and recommender systems. In this paper, the author proposes using Variational Autoencoder (VAE) to build an interactive fashion product application framework that allows the users to generate products with attributes according to their liking, retrieve similar styles for the same product category, and receive content-based recommendations from other categories. Fashion product images dataset containing eyewear, footwear, and bags are appropriate to illustrate that this pipeline is applicable in the booming industry of e-commerce enabling direct user interaction in specifying desired products paired with new methods for data matching, and recommendation systems by using VAE and exploiting its generated latent codes.

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