We introduce normalized nonnegative models (NNM) for explorative data analysis. NNMs are partial convexifications of models from probability theory. We demonstrate their value at the example of item recommendation. We show that NNM-based recommender systems satisfy three criteria that all recommender systems should ideally satisfy: high predictive power, computational tractability, and expressive representations of users and items. Expressive user and item representations are important in practice to succinctly summarize the pool of customers and the pool of items. In NNMs, user representations are expressive because each user's preference can be regarded as normalized mixture of preferences of stereotypical users. The interpretability of item and user representations allow us to arrange properties of items (e.g., genres of movies or topics of documents) or users (e.g., personality traits) hierarchically.
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) were recently proposed for the session-based recommendation task. The models showed promising improvements over traditional recommendation approaches. In this work, we further study RNN-based models for session-based recommendations. We propose the application of two techniques to improve model performance, namely, data augmentation, and a method to account for shifts in the input data distribution. We also empirically study the use of generalised distillation, and a novel alternative model that directly predicts item embeddings. Experiments on the RecSys Challenge 2015 dataset demonstrate relative improvements of 12.8% and 14.8% over previously reported results on the [email protected] and Mean Reciprocal [email protected] metrics respectively.
Effective human-AI collaboration requires a system design that provides humans with meaningful ways to make sense of and critically evaluate algorithmic recommendations. In this paper, we propose a way to augment human-AI collaboration by building on a common organizational practice: identifying experts who are likely to provide complementary opinions. When machine learning algorithms are trained to predict human-generated assessments, experts' rich multitude of perspectives is frequently lost in monolithic algorithmic recommendations. The proposed approach aims to leverage productive disagreement by (1) identifying whether some experts are likely to disagree with an algorithmic assessment and, if so, (2) recommend an expert to request a second opinion from.
Citation recommendation is intended to assist researchers in the process of searching for relevant papers to cite by recommending appropriate citations for a given input text. Existing test collections for this task are noisy and unreliable since they are built automatically from parsed PDF papers. In this paper, we present our ongoing effort at creating a publicly available, manually annotated test collection for citation recommendation. We also conduct a series of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of content-based baseline models on the test collection, providing results for future work to improve upon. Our test collection and code to replicate experiments are available at https://github.com/boudinfl/acm-cr
Explanations in a recommender system assist users in making informed decisions among a set of recommended items. Great research attention has been devoted to generating natural language explanations to depict how the recommendations are generated and why the users should pay attention to them. However, due to different limitations of those solutions, e.g., template-based or generation-based, it is hard to make the explanations easily perceivable, reliable and personalized at the same time. In this work, we develop a graph attentive neural network model that seamlessly integrates user, item, attributes, and sentences for extraction-based explanation. The attributes of items are selected as the intermediary to facilitate message passing for user-item specific evaluation of sentence relevance. And to balance individual sentence relevance, overall attribute coverage, and content redundancy, we solve an integer linear programming problem to make the final selection of sentences. Extensive empirical evaluations against a set of state-of-the-art baseline methods on two benchmark review datasets demonstrated the generation quality of the proposed solution.
We propose a novel software service recommendation model to help users find their suitable repositories in GitHub. Our model first designs a novel context-induced repository graph embedding method to leverage rich contextual information of repositories to alleviate the difficulties caused by the data sparsity issue. It then leverages sequence information of user-repository interactions for the first time in the software service recommendation field. Specifically, a deep-learning based sequential recommendation technique is adopted to capture the dynamics of user preferences. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted on a large dataset collected from GitHub against a list of existing methods. The results illustrate the superiority of our method in various aspects.
We propose a new approach for building recommender systems by adapting surrogate-assisted interactive genetic algorithms. A pool of user-evaluated items is used to construct an approximative model which serves as a surrogate fitness function in a genetic algorithm for optimizing new suggestions. The surrogate is used to recommend new items to the user, which are then evaluated according to the user's liking and subsequently removed from the search space. By updating the surrogate model after new recommendations have been evaluated by the user, we enable the model itself to evolve towards the user's preferences. In order to precisely evaluate the performance of that approach, the human's subjective evaluation is replaced by common continuous objective benchmark functions for evolutionary algorithms. The system's performance is compared to a conventional genetic algorithm and random search. We show that given a very limited amount of allowed evaluations on the true objective, our approach outperforms these baseline methods.
We introduce an approach to recommending short-lived dynamic packages for golf booking services. Two challenges are addressed in this work. The first is the short life of the items, which puts the system in a state of a permanent cold start. The second is the uninformative nature of the package attributes, which makes clustering or figuring latent packages challenging. Although such settings are fairly pervasive, they have not been studied in traditional recommendation research, and there is thus a call for original approaches for recommender systems. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid method that leverages user analysis and its relation to the packages, as well as package pricing and environmental analysis, and traditional collaborative filtering. The proposed approach achieved appreciable improvement in precision compared with baselines.
Recommender systems are an essential part of any e-commerce platform. Recommendations are typically generated by aggregating large amounts of user data. A malicious actor may be motivated to sway the output of such recommender systems by injecting malicious datapoints to leverage the system for financial gain. In this work, we propose a semi-supervised attack detection algorithm to identify the malicious datapoints. We do this by leveraging a portion of the dataset that has a lower chance of being polluted to learn the distribution of genuine datapoints. Our proposed approach modifies the Generative Adversarial Network architecture to take into account the contextual information from user activity. This allows the model to distinguish legitimate datapoints from the injected ones.
The goal of a next basket recommendation (NBR) system is to recommend items for the next basket for a user, based on the sequence of their prior baskets. Recently, a number of methods with complex modules have been proposed that claim state-of-the-art performance. They rarely look into the predicted basket and just provide intuitive reasons for the observed improvements, e.g., better representation, capturing intentions or relations, etc. We provide a novel angle on the evaluation of next basket recommendation methods, centered on the distinction between repetition and exploration: the next basket is typically composed of previously consumed items (i.e., repeat items) and new items (i.e, explore items). We propose a set of metrics that measure the repeat/explore ratio and performance of NBR models. Using these new metrics, we analyze state-of-the-art NBR models. The results of our analysis help to clarify the extent of the actual progress achieved by existing NBR methods as well as the underlying reasons for the improvements. Overall, our work sheds light on the evaluation problem of NBR and provides useful insights into the model design for this task.