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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

NRPA: Neural Recommendation with Personalized Attention

May 29, 2019
Hongtao Liu, Fangzhao Wu, Wenjun Wang, Xianchen Wang, Pengfei Jiao, Chuhan Wu, Xing Xie

Existing review-based recommendation methods usually use the same model to learn the representations of all users/items from reviews posted by users towards items. However, different users have different preference and different items have different characteristics. Thus, the same word or similar reviews may have different informativeness for different users and items. In this paper we propose a neural recommendation approach with personalized attention to learn personalized representations of users and items from reviews. We use a review encoder to learn representations of reviews from words, and a user/item encoder to learn representations of users or items from reviews. We propose a personalized attention model, and apply it to both review and user/item encoders to select different important words and reviews for different users/items. Experiments on five datasets validate our approach can effectively improve the performance of neural recommendation.

* sigir 2019 
* 4 pages, 4 figures 

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LRMM: Learning to Recommend with Missing Modalities

Aug 30, 2018
Cheng Wang, Mathias Niepert, Hui Li

Multimodal learning has shown promising performance in content-based recommendation due to the auxiliary user and item information of multiple modalities such as text and images. However, the problem of incomplete and missing modality is rarely explored and most existing methods fail in learning a recommendation model with missing or corrupted modalities. In this paper, we propose LRMM, a novel framework that mitigates not only the problem of missing modalities but also more generally the cold-start problem of recommender systems. We propose modality dropout (m-drop) and a multimodal sequential autoencoder (m-auto) to learn multimodal representations for complementing and imputing missing modalities. Extensive experiments on real-world Amazon data show that LRMM achieves state-of-the-art performance on rating prediction tasks. More importantly, LRMM is more robust to previous methods in alleviating data-sparsity and the cold-start problem.

* 11 pages, EMNLP 2018 

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Adherence and Constancy in LIME-RS Explanations for Recommendation

Sep 05, 2021
Vito Walter Anelli, Alejandro Bellogín, Tommaso Di Noia, Francesco Maria Donini, Vincenzo Paparella, Claudio Pomo

Explainable Recommendation has attracted a lot of attention due to a renewed interest in explainable artificial intelligence. In particular, post-hoc approaches have proved to be the most easily applicable ones to increasingly complex recommendation models, which are then treated as black-boxes. The most recent literature has shown that for post-hoc explanations based on local surrogate models, there are problems related to the robustness of the approach itself. This consideration becomes even more relevant in human-related tasks like recommendation. The explanation also has the arduous task of enhancing increasingly relevant aspects of user experience such as transparency or trustworthiness. This paper aims to show how the characteristics of a classical post-hoc model based on surrogates is strongly model-dependent and does not prove to be accountable for the explanations generated.

* accepted at KaRS Workshop @RecSys 2021 

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Towards a More Reliable Privacy-preserving Recommender System

Nov 22, 2017
Jia-Yun Jiang, Cheng-Te Li, Shou-De Lin

This paper proposes a privacy-preserving distributed recommendation framework, Secure Distributed Collaborative Filtering (SDCF), to preserve the privacy of value, model and existence altogether. That says, not only the ratings from the users to the items, but also the existence of the ratings as well as the learned recommendation model are kept private in our framework. Our solution relies on a distributed client-server architecture and a two-stage Randomized Response algorithm, along with an implementation on the popular recommendation model, Matrix Factorization (MF). We further prove SDCF to meet the guarantee of Differential Privacy so that clients are allowed to specify arbitrary privacy levels. Experiments conducted on numerical rating prediction and one-class rating action prediction exhibit that SDCF does not sacrifice too much accuracy for privacy.

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Zero-Shot Recommendation as Language Modeling

Dec 08, 2021
Damien Sileo, Wout Vossen, Robbe Raymaekers

Recommendation is the task of ranking items (e.g. movies or products) according to individual user needs. Current systems rely on collaborative filtering and content-based techniques, which both require structured training data. We propose a framework for recommendation with off-the-shelf pretrained language models (LM) that only used unstructured text corpora as training data. If a user $u$ liked \textit{Matrix} and \textit{Inception}, we construct a textual prompt, e.g. \textit{"Movies like Matrix, Inception, ${<}m{>}$"} to estimate the affinity between $u$ and $m$ with LM likelihood. We motivate our idea with a corpus analysis, evaluate several prompt structures, and we compare LM-based recommendation with standard matrix factorization trained on different data regimes. The code for our experiments is publicly available (

* Accepted at ECIR 2022 

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Behavior Sequence Transformer for E-commerce Recommendation in Alibaba

May 15, 2019
Qiwei Chen, Huan Zhao, Wei Li, Pipei Huang, Wenwu Ou

Deep learning based methods have been widely used in industrial recommendation systems (RSs). Previous works adopt an Embedding&MLP paradigm: raw features are embedded into low-dimensional vectors, which are then fed on to MLP for final recommendations. However, most of these works just concatenate different features, ignoring the sequential nature of users' behaviors. In this paper, we propose to use the powerful Transformer model to capture the sequential signals underlying users' behavior sequences for recommendation in Alibaba. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model, which is then deployed online at Taobao and obtain significant improvements in online Click-Through-Rate (CTR) comparing to two baselines.

* 4 pages, 1 figure 

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Recommendation System-based Upper Confidence Bound for Online Advertising

Sep 09, 2019
Nhan Nguyen-Thanh, Dana Marinca, Kinda Khawam, David Rohde, Flavian Vasile, Elena Simona Lohan, Steven Martin, Dominique Quadri

In this paper, the method UCB-RS, which resorts to recommendation system (RS) for enhancing the upper-confidence bound algorithm UCB, is presented. The proposed method is used for dealing with non-stationary and large-state spaces multi-armed bandit problems. The proposed method has been targeted to the problem of the product recommendation in the online advertising. Through extensive testing with RecoGym, an OpenAI Gym-based reinforcement learning environment for the product recommendation in online advertising, the proposed method outperforms the widespread reinforcement learning schemes such as $\epsilon$-Greedy, Upper Confidence (UCB1) and Exponential Weights for Exploration and Exploitation (EXP3).

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Causal Analysis Framework for Recommendation

Jan 18, 2022
Peng Wu, Haoxuan Li, Yuhao Deng, Wenjie Hu, Quanyu Dai, Zhenhua Dong, Jie Sun, Rui Zhang, Xiao-Hua Zhou

Recently, recommendation based on causal inference has gained much attention in the industrial community. The introduction of causal techniques into recommender systems (RS) has brought great development to this field and has gradually become a trend. However, a unified causal analysis framework has not been established yet. On one hand, the existing causal methods in RS lack a clear causal and mathematical formalization on the scientific questions of interest. Many confusions need to be clarified: what exactly is being estimated, for what purpose, in which scenario, by which technique, and under what plausible assumptions. On the other hand, technically speaking, the existence of various biases is the main obstacle to drawing causal conclusions from observed data. Yet, formal definitions of the biases in RS are still not clear. Both of the limitations greatly hinder the development of RS. In this paper, we attempt to give a causal analysis framework to accommodate different scenarios in RS, thereby providing a principled and rigorous operational guideline for causal recommendation. We first propose a step-by-step guideline on how to clarify and investigate problems in RS using causal concepts. Then, we provide a new taxonomy and give a formal definition of various biases in RS from the perspective of violating what assumptions are adopted in standard causal analysis. Finally, we find that many problems in RS can be well formalized into a few scenarios using the proposed causal analysis framework.

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Given Users Recommendations Based on Reviews on Yelp

Dec 03, 2021
Shuwei Zhang, Maiqi Tang, Qingyang Zhang, Yucan Luo, Yuhui Zou

In our project, we focus on NLP-based hybrid recommendation systems. Our data is from Yelp Data. For our hybrid recommendation system, we have two major components: the first part is to embed the reviews with the Bert model and word2vec model; the second part is the implementation of an item-based collaborative filtering algorithm to compute the similarity of each review under different categories of restaurants. In the end, with the help of similarity scores, we are able to recommend users the most matched restaurant based on their recorded reviews. The coding work is split into several parts: selecting samples and data cleaning, processing, embedding, computing similarity, and computing prediction and error. Due to the size of the data, each part will generate one or more JSON files as the milestone to reduce the pressure on memory and the communication between each part.

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Zero-Shot Recommender Systems

May 18, 2021
Hao Ding, Yifei Ma, Anoop Deoras, Yuyang Wang, Hao Wang

Performance of recommender systems (RS) relies heavily on the amount of training data available. This poses a chicken-and-egg problem for early-stage products, whose amount of data, in turn, relies on the performance of their RS. On the other hand, zero-shot learning promises some degree of generalization from an old dataset to an entirely new dataset. In this paper, we explore the possibility of zero-shot learning in RS. We develop an algorithm, dubbed ZEro-Shot Recommenders (ZESRec), that is trained on an old dataset and generalize to a new one where there are neither overlapping users nor overlapping items, a setting that contrasts typical cross-domain RS that has either overlapping users or items. Different from categorical item indices, i.e., item ID, in previous methods, ZESRec uses items' natural-language descriptions (or description embeddings) as their continuous indices, and therefore naturally generalize to any unseen items. In terms of users, ZESRec builds upon recent advances on sequential RS to represent users using their interactions with items, thereby generalizing to unseen users as well. We study two pairs of real-world RS datasets and demonstrate that ZESRec can successfully enable recommendations in such a zero-shot setting, opening up new opportunities for resolving the chicken-and-egg problem for data-scarce startups or early-stage products.

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