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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

Universal-Prototype Augmentation for Few-Shot Object Detection

Mar 01, 2021
Aming Wu, Yahong Han, Linchao Zhu, Yi Yang, Cheng Deng

Few-shot object detection (FSOD) aims to strengthen the performance of novel object detection with few labeled samples. To alleviate the constraint of few samples, enhancing the generalization ability of learned features for novel objects plays a key role. Thus, the feature learning process of FSOD should focus more on intrinsical object characteristics, which are invariant under different visual changes and therefore are helpful for feature generalization. Unlike previous attempts of the meta-learning paradigm, in this paper, we explore how to smooth object features with intrinsical characteristics that are universal across different object categories. We propose a new prototype, namely universal prototype, that is learned from all object categories. Besides the advantage of characterizing invariant characteristics, the universal prototypes alleviate the impact of unbalanced object categories. After augmenting object features with the universal prototypes, we impose a consistency loss to maximize the agreement between the augmented features and the original one, which is beneficial for learning invariant object characteristics. Thus, we develop a new framework of few-shot object detection with universal prototypes (${FSOD}^{up}$) that owns the merit of feature generalization towards novel objects. Experimental results on PASCAL VOC and MS COCO demonstrate the effectiveness of ${FSOD}^{up}$. Particularly, for the 1-shot case of VOC Split2, ${FSOD}^{up}$ outperforms the baseline by 6.8\% in terms of mAP. Moreover, we further verify ${FSOD}^{up}$ on a long-tail detection dataset, i.e., LVIS. And employing ${FSOD}^{up}$ outperforms the state-of-the-art method.

  

Large-Scale Object Detection of Images from Network Cameras in Variable Ambient Lighting Conditions

Dec 31, 2018
Caleb Tung, Matthew R. Kelleher, Ryan J. Schlueter, Binhan Xu, Yung-Hsiang Lu, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yen-Kuang Chen, Yang Lu

Computer vision relies on labeled datasets for training and evaluation in detecting and recognizing objects. The popular computer vision program, YOLO ("You Only Look Once"), has been shown to accurately detect objects in many major image datasets. However, the images found in those datasets, are independent of one another and cannot be used to test YOLO's consistency at detecting the same object as its environment (e.g. ambient lighting) changes. This paper describes a novel effort to evaluate YOLO's consistency for large-scale applications. It does so by working (a) at large scale and (b) by using consecutive images from a curated network of public video cameras deployed in a variety of real-world situations, including traffic intersections, national parks, shopping malls, university campuses, etc. We specifically examine YOLO's ability to detect objects in different scenarios (e.g., daytime vs. night), leveraging the cameras' ability to rapidly retrieve many successive images for evaluating detection consistency. Using our camera network and advanced computing resources (supercomputers), we analyzed more than 5 million images captured by 140 network cameras in 24 hours. Compared with labels marked by humans (considered as "ground truth"), YOLO struggles to consistently detect the same humans and cars as their positions change from one frame to the next; it also struggles to detect objects at night time. Our findings suggest that state-of-the art vision solutions should be trained by data from network camera with contextual information before they can be deployed in applications that demand high consistency on object detection.

* Submitted to MIPR 2019 (Accepted) 
  

Analysis of voxel-based 3D object detection methods efficiency for real-time embedded systems

May 21, 2021
Illia Oleksiienko, Alexandros Iosifidis

Real-time detection of objects in the 3D scene is one of the tasks an autonomous agent needs to perform for understanding its surroundings. While recent Deep Learning-based solutions achieve satisfactory performance, their high computational cost renders their application in real-life settings in which computations need to be performed on embedded platforms intractable. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of two popular voxel-based 3D object detection methods providing a good compromise between high performance and speed based on two aspects, their ability to detect objects located at large distances from the agent and their ability to operate in real time on embedded platforms equipped with high-performance GPUs. Our experiments show that these methods mostly fail to detect distant small objects due to the sparsity of the input point clouds at large distances. Moreover, models trained on near objects achieve similar or better performance compared to those trained on all objects in the scene. This means that the models learn object appearance representations mostly from near objects. Our findings suggest that a considerable part of the computations of existing methods is focused on locations of the scene that do not contribute with successful detection. This means that the methods can achieve a speed-up of $40$-$60\%$ by restricting operation to near objects while not sacrificing much in performance.

* 6 pages, 4 figures. Accepted in IEEE ICETCI 2021 
  

RelationRS: Relationship Representation Network for Object Detection in Aerial Images

Oct 13, 2021
Zhiming Liu, Xuefei Zhang, Chongyang Liu, Hao Wang, Chao Sun, Bin Li, Weifeng Sun, Pu Huang, Qingjun Li, Yu Liu, Haipeng Kuang, Jihong Xiu

Object detection is a basic and important task in the field of aerial image processing and has gained much attention in computer vision. However, previous aerial image object detection approaches have insufficient use of scene semantic information between different regions of large-scale aerial images. In addition, complex background and scale changes make it difficult to improve detection accuracy. To address these issues, we propose a relationship representation network for object detection in aerial images (RelationRS): 1) Firstly, multi-scale features are fused and enhanced by a dual relationship module (DRM) with conditional convolution. The dual relationship module learns the potential relationship between features of different scales and learns the relationship between different scenes from different patches in a same iteration. In addition, the dual relationship module dynamically generates parameters to guide the fusion of multi-scale features. 2) Secondly, The bridging visual representations module (BVR) is introduced into the field of aerial images to improve the object detection effect in images with complex backgrounds. Experiments with a publicly available object detection dataset for aerial images demonstrate that the proposed RelationRS achieves a state-of-the-art detection performance.

* 12 pages, 8 figures 
  

ORA3D: Overlap Region Aware Multi-view 3D Object Detection

Jul 02, 2022
Wonseok Roh, Gyusam Chang, Seokha Moon, Giljoo Nam, Chanyoung Kim, Younghyun Kim, Sangpil Kim, Jinkyu Kim

In multi-view 3D object detection tasks, disparity supervision over overlapping image regions substantially improves the overall detection performance. However, current multi-view 3D object detection methods often fail to detect objects in the overlap region properly, and the network's understanding of the scene is often limited to that of a monocular detection network. To mitigate this issue, we advocate for applying the traditional stereo disparity estimation method to obtain reliable disparity information for the overlap region. Given the disparity estimates as a supervision, we propose to regularize the network to fully utilize the geometric potential of binocular images, and improve the overall detection accuracy. Moreover, we propose to use an adversarial overlap region discriminator, which is trained to minimize the representational gap between non-overlap regions and overlapping regions where objects are often largely occluded or suffer from deformation due to camera distortion, causing a domain shift. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method with the large-scale multi-view 3D object detection benchmark, called nuScenes. Our experiment shows that our proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods.

  

Underwater object detection using Invert Multi-Class Adaboost with deep learning

May 23, 2020
Long Chen, Zhihua Liu, Lei Tong, Zheheng Jiang, Shengke Wang, Junyu Dong, Huiyu Zhou

In recent years, deep learning based methods have achieved promising performance in standard object detection. However, these methods lack sufficient capabilities to handle underwater object detection due to these challenges: (1) Objects in real applications are usually small and their images are blurry, and (2) images in the underwater datasets and real applications accompany heterogeneous noise. To address these two problems, we first propose a novel neural network architecture, namely Sample-WeIghted hyPEr Network (SWIPENet), for small object detection. SWIPENet consists of high resolution and semantic rich Hyper Feature Maps which can significantly improve small object detection accuracy. In addition, we propose a novel sample-weighted loss function which can model sample weights for SWIPENet, which uses a novel sample re-weighting algorithm, namely Invert Multi-Class Adaboost (IMA), to reduce the influence of noise on the proposed SWIPENet. Experiments on two underwater robot picking contest datasets URPC2017 and URPC2018 show that the proposed SWIPENet+IMA framework achieves better performance in detection accuracy against several state-of-the-art object detection approaches.

  

A 3D Object Detection and Pose Estimation Pipeline Using RGB-D Images

Mar 11, 2017
Ruotao He, Juan Rojas, Yisheng Guan

3D object detection and pose estimation has been studied extensively in recent decades for its potential applications in robotics. However, there still remains challenges when we aim at detecting multiple objects while retaining low false positive rate in cluttered environments. This paper proposes a robust 3D object detection and pose estimation pipeline based on RGB-D images, which can detect multiple objects simultaneously while reducing false positives. Detection begins with template matching and yields a set of template matches. A clustering algorithm then groups templates of similar spatial location and produces multiple-object hypotheses. A scoring function evaluates the hypotheses using their associated templates and non-maximum suppression is adopted to remove duplicate results based on the scores. Finally, a combination of point cloud processing algorithms are used to compute objects' 3D poses. Existing object hypotheses are verified by computing the overlap between model and scene points. Experiments demonstrate that our approach provides competitive results comparable to the state-of-the-arts and can be applied to robot random bin-picking.

  

Detection as Regression: Certified Object Detection by Median Smoothing

Jul 07, 2020
Ping-yeh Chiang, Michael J. Curry, Ahmed Abdelkader, Aounon Kumar, John Dickerson, Tom Goldstein

Despite the vulnerability of object detectors to adversarial attacks, very few defenses are known to date. While adversarial training can improve the empirical robustness of image classifiers, a direct extension to object detection is very expensive. This work is motivated by recent progress on certified classification by randomized smoothing. We start by presenting a reduction from object detection to a regression problem. Then, to enable certified regression, where standard mean smoothing fails, we propose median smoothing, which is of independent interest. We obtain the first model-agnostic, training-free, and certified defense for object detection against $\ell_2$-bounded attacks.

  

SMOKE: Single-Stage Monocular 3D Object Detection via Keypoint Estimation

Feb 24, 2020
Zechen Liu, Zizhang Wu, Roland Tóth

Estimating 3D orientation and translation of objects is essential for infrastructure-less autonomous navigation and driving. In case of monocular vision, successful methods have been mainly based on two ingredients: (i) a network generating 2D region proposals, (ii) a R-CNN structure predicting 3D object pose by utilizing the acquired regions of interest. We argue that the 2D detection network is redundant and introduces non-negligible noise for 3D detection. Hence, we propose a novel 3D object detection method, named SMOKE, in this paper that predicts a 3D bounding box for each detected object by combining a single keypoint estimate with regressed 3D variables. As a second contribution, we propose a multi-step disentangling approach for constructing the 3D bounding box, which significantly improves both training convergence and detection accuracy. In contrast to previous 3D detection techniques, our method does not require complicated pre/post-processing, extra data, and a refinement stage. Despite of its structural simplicity, our proposed SMOKE network outperforms all existing monocular 3D detection methods on the KITTI dataset, giving the best state-of-the-art result on both 3D object detection and Bird's eye view evaluation. The code will be made publicly available.

* 8 pages, 6 figures 
  

StuffNet: Using 'Stuff' to Improve Object Detection

Jan 30, 2017
Samarth Brahmbhatt, Henrik I. Christensen, James Hays

We propose a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based algorithm - StuffNet - for object detection. In addition to the standard convolutional features trained for region proposal and object detection [31], StuffNet uses convolutional features trained for segmentation of objects and 'stuff' (amorphous categories such as ground and water). Through experiments on Pascal VOC 2010, we show the importance of features learnt from stuff segmentation for improving object detection performance. StuffNet improves performance from 18.8% mAP to 23.9% mAP for small objects. We also devise a method to train StuffNet on datasets that do not have stuff segmentation labels. Through experiments on Pascal VOC 2007 and 2012, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and show that StuffNet also significantly improves object detection performance on such datasets.

* Camera-ready version for IEEE WACV 2017 
  
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