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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

ClusterNet: Detecting Small Objects in Large Scenes by Exploiting Spatio-Temporal Information

Dec 04, 2017
Rodney LaLonde, Dong Zhang, Mubarak Shah

Object detection in wide area motion imagery (WAMI) has drawn the attention of the computer vision research community for a number of years. WAMI proposes a number of unique challenges including extremely small object sizes, both sparse and densely-packed objects, and extremely large search spaces (large video frames). Nearly all state-of-the-art methods in WAMI object detection report that appearance-based classifiers fail in this challenging data and instead rely almost entirely on motion information in the form of background subtraction or frame-differencing. In this work, we experimentally verify the failure of appearance-based classifiers in WAMI, such as Faster R-CNN and a heatmap-based fully convolutional neural network (CNN), and propose a novel two-stage spatio-temporal CNN which effectively and efficiently combines both appearance and motion information to significantly surpass the state-of-the-art in WAMI object detection. To reduce the large search space, the first stage (ClusterNet) takes in a set of extremely large video frames, combines the motion and appearance information within the convolutional architecture, and proposes regions of objects of interest (ROOBI). These ROOBI can contain from one to clusters of several hundred objects due to the large video frame size and varying object density in WAMI. The second stage (FoveaNet) then estimates the centroid location of all objects in that given ROOBI simultaneously via heatmap estimation. The proposed method exceeds state-of-the-art results on the WPAFB 2009 dataset by 5-16% for moving objects and nearly 50% for stopped objects, as well as being the first proposed method in wide area motion imagery to detect completely stationary objects.

* Main paper is 8 pages. Supplemental section contains a walk-through of our method (using a qualitative example) and qualitative results for WPAFB 2009 dataset 
  
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AdaZoom: Adaptive Zoom Network for Multi-Scale Object Detection in Large Scenes

Jun 19, 2021
Jingtao Xu, Yali Li, Shengjin Wang

Detection in large-scale scenes is a challenging problem due to small objects and extreme scale variation. It is essential to focus on the image regions of small objects. In this paper, we propose a novel Adaptive Zoom (AdaZoom) network as a selective magnifier with flexible shape and focal length to adaptively zoom the focus regions for object detection. Based on policy gradient, we construct a reinforcement learning framework for focus region generation, with the reward formulated by object distributions. The scales and aspect ratios of the generated regions are adaptive to the scales and distribution of objects inside. We apply variable magnification according to the scale of the region for adaptive multi-scale detection. We further propose collaborative training to complementarily promote the performance of AdaZoom and the detection network. To validate the effectiveness, we conduct extensive experiments on VisDrone2019, UAVDT, and DOTA datasets. The experiments show AdaZoom brings a consistent and significant improvement over different detection networks, achieving state-of-the-art performance on these datasets, especially outperforming the existing methods by AP of 4.64% on Vis-Drone2019.

  
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RBGNet: Ray-based Grouping for 3D Object Detection

Apr 05, 2022
Haiyang Wang, Shaoshuai Shi, Ze Yang, Rongyao Fang, Qi Qian, Hongsheng Li, Bernt Schiele, Liwei Wang

As a fundamental problem in computer vision, 3D object detection is experiencing rapid growth. To extract the point-wise features from the irregularly and sparsely distributed points, previous methods usually take a feature grouping module to aggregate the point features to an object candidate. However, these methods have not yet leveraged the surface geometry of foreground objects to enhance grouping and 3D box generation. In this paper, we propose the RBGNet framework, a voting-based 3D detector for accurate 3D object detection from point clouds. In order to learn better representations of object shape to enhance cluster features for predicting 3D boxes, we propose a ray-based feature grouping module, which aggregates the point-wise features on object surfaces using a group of determined rays uniformly emitted from cluster centers. Considering the fact that foreground points are more meaningful for box estimation, we design a novel foreground biased sampling strategy in downsample process to sample more points on object surfaces and further boost the detection performance. Our model achieves state-of-the-art 3D detection performance on ScanNet V2 and SUN RGB-D with remarkable performance gains. Code will be available at https://github.com/Haiyang-W/RBGNet.

  
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Neighbor-Vote: Improving Monocular 3D Object Detection through Neighbor Distance Voting

Jul 06, 2021
Xiaomeng Chu, Jiajun Deng, Yao Li, Zhenxun Yuan, Yanyong Zhang, Jianmin Ji, Yu Zhang

As cameras are increasingly deployed in new application domains such as autonomous driving, performing 3D object detection on monocular images becomes an important task for visual scene understanding. Recent advances on monocular 3D object detection mainly rely on the ``pseudo-LiDAR'' generation, which performs monocular depth estimation and lifts the 2D pixels to pseudo 3D points. However, depth estimation from monocular images, due to its poor accuracy, leads to inevitable position shift of pseudo-LiDAR points within the object. Therefore, the predicted bounding boxes may suffer from inaccurate location and deformed shape. In this paper, we present a novel neighbor-voting method that incorporates neighbor predictions to ameliorate object detection from severely deformed pseudo-LiDAR point clouds. Specifically, each feature point around the object forms their own predictions, and then the ``consensus'' is achieved through voting. In this way, we can effectively combine the neighbors' predictions with local prediction and achieve more accurate 3D detection. To further enlarge the difference between the foreground region of interest (ROI) pseudo-LiDAR points and the background points, we also encode the ROI prediction scores of 2D foreground pixels into the corresponding pseudo-LiDAR points. We conduct extensive experiments on the KITTI benchmark to validate the merits of our proposed method. Our results on the bird's eye view detection outperform the state-of-the-art performance by a large margin, especially for the ``hard'' level detection.

* Accepted by ACM Multimedia 2021 
  
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Development of An Android Application for Object Detection Based on Color, Shape, or Local Features

Mar 10, 2017
Lamiaa A. Elrefaei, Mona Omar Al-musawa, Norah Abdullah Al-gohany

Object detection and recognition is an important task in many computer vision applications. In this paper an Android application was developed using Eclipse IDE and OpenCV3 Library. This application is able to detect objects in an image that is loaded from the mobile gallery, based on its color, shape, or local features. The image is processed in the HSV color domain for better color detection. Circular shapes are detected using Circular Hough Transform and other shapes are detected using Douglas-Peucker algorithm. BRISK (binary robust invariant scalable keypoints) local features were applied in the developed Android application for matching an object image in another scene image. The steps of the proposed detection algorithms are described, and the interfaces of the application are illustrated. The application is ported and tested on Galaxy S3, S6, and Note1 Smartphones. Based on the experimental results, the application is capable of detecting eleven different colors, detecting two dimensional geometrical shapes including circles, rectangles, triangles, and squares, and correctly match local features of object and scene images for different conditions. The application could be used as a standalone application, or as a part of another application such as Robot systems, traffic systems, e-learning applications, information retrieval and many others.

* The International Journal of Multimedia & Its Applications (IJMA) Vol.9, No.1, February 2017 
  
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Light-Weight RetinaNet for Object Detection

May 24, 2019
Yixing Li, Fengbo Ren

Object detection has gained great progress driven by the development of deep learning. Compared with a widely studied task -- classification, generally speaking, object detection even need one or two orders of magnitude more FLOPs (floating point operations) in processing the inference task. To enable a practical application, it is essential to explore effective runtime and accuracy trade-off scheme. Recently, a growing number of studies are intended for object detection on resource constraint devices, such as YOLOv1, YOLOv2, SSD, MobileNetv2-SSDLite, whose accuracy on COCO test-dev detection results are yield to mAP around 22-25% (mAP-20-tier). On the contrary, very few studies discuss the computation and accuracy trade-off scheme for mAP-30-tier detection networks. In this paper, we illustrate the insights of why RetinaNet gives effective computation and accuracy trade-off for object detection and how to build a light-weight RetinaNet. We propose to only reduce FLOPs in computational intensive layers and keep other layer the same. Compared with most common way -- input image scaling for FLOPs-accuracy trade-off, the proposed solution shows a constantly better FLOPs-mAP trade-off line. Quantitatively, the proposed method result in 0.1% mAP improvement at 1.15x FLOPs reduction and 0.3% mAP improvement at 1.8x FLOPs reduction.

  
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Relation Distillation Networks for Video Object Detection

Aug 26, 2019
Jiajun Deng, Yingwei Pan, Ting Yao, Wengang Zhou, Houqiang Li, Tao Mei

It has been well recognized that modeling object-to-object relations would be helpful for object detection. Nevertheless, the problem is not trivial especially when exploring the interactions between objects to boost video object detectors. The difficulty originates from the aspect that reliable object relations in a video should depend on not only the objects in the present frame but also all the supportive objects extracted over a long range span of the video. In this paper, we introduce a new design to capture the interactions across the objects in spatio-temporal context. Specifically, we present Relation Distillation Networks (RDN) --- a new architecture that novelly aggregates and propagates object relation to augment object features for detection. Technically, object proposals are first generated via Region Proposal Networks (RPN). RDN then, on one hand, models object relation via multi-stage reasoning, and on the other, progressively distills relation through refining supportive object proposals with high objectness scores in a cascaded manner. The learnt relation verifies the efficacy on both improving object detection in each frame and box linking across frames. Extensive experiments are conducted on ImageNet VID dataset, and superior results are reported when comparing to state-of-the-art methods. More remarkably, our RDN achieves 81.8% and 83.2% mAP with ResNet-101 and ResNeXt-101, respectively. When further equipped with linking and rescoring, we obtain to-date the best reported mAP of 83.8% and 84.7%.

* ICCV 2019 
  
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Salient Object Detection: A Benchmark

Feb 27, 2018
Ali Borji, Ming-Ming Cheng, Huaizu Jiang, Jia Li

We extensively compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, 40 state-of-the-art models (28 salient object detection, 10 fixation prediction, 1 objectness, and 1 baseline) over 6 challenging datasets for the purpose of benchmarking salient object detection and segmentation methods. From the results obtained so far, our evaluation shows a consistent rapid progress over the last few years in terms of both accuracy and running time. The top contenders in this benchmark significantly outperform the models identified as the best in the previous benchmark conducted just two years ago. We find that the models designed specifically for salient object detection generally work better than models in closely related areas, which in turn provides a precise definition and suggests an appropriate treatment of this problem that distinguishes it from other problems. In particular, we analyze the influences of center bias and scene complexity in model performance, which, along with the hard cases for state-of-the-art models, provide useful hints towards constructing more challenging large scale datasets and better saliency models. Finally, we propose probable solutions for tackling several open problems such as evaluation scores and dataset bias, which also suggest future research directions in the rapidly-growing field of salient object detection.

* Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:24, Issue: 12), 2015 
  
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CubeSLAM: Monocular 3D Object Detection and SLAM without Prior Models

Jun 01, 2018
Shichao Yang, Sebastian Scherer

We present a method for single image 3D cuboid object detection and multi-view object SLAM without prior object model, and demonstrate that the two aspects can benefit each other. For 3D detection, we generate high quality cuboid proposals from 2D bounding boxes and vanishing points sampling. The proposals are further scored and selected to align with image edges. Experiments on SUN RGBD and KITTI shows the efficiency and accuracy over existing approaches. Then in the second part, multi-view bundle adjustment with novel measurement functions is proposed to jointly optimize camera poses, objects and points, utilizing single view detection results. Objects can provide more geometric constraints and scale consistency compared to points. On the collected and public TUM and KITTI odometry datasets, we achieve better pose estimation accuracy over the state-of-the-art monocular SLAM while also improve the 3D object detection accuracy at the same time.

  
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Category-Aware Transformer Network for Better Human-Object Interaction Detection

Apr 11, 2022
Leizhen Dong, Zhimin Li, Kunlun Xu, Zhijun Zhang, Luxin Yan, Sheng Zhong, Xu Zou

Human-Object Interactions (HOI) detection, which aims to localize a human and a relevant object while recognizing their interaction, is crucial for understanding a still image. Recently, transformer-based models have significantly advanced the progress of HOI detection. However, the capability of these models has not been fully explored since the Object Query of the model is always simply initialized as just zeros, which would affect the performance. In this paper, we try to study the issue of promoting transformer-based HOI detectors by initializing the Object Query with category-aware semantic information. To this end, we innovatively propose the Category-Aware Transformer Network (CATN). Specifically, the Object Query would be initialized via category priors represented by an external object detection model to yield better performance. Moreover, such category priors can be further used for enhancing the representation ability of features via the attention mechanism. We have firstly verified our idea via the Oracle experiment by initializing the Object Query with the groundtruth category information. And then extensive experiments have been conducted to show that a HOI detection model equipped with our idea outperforms the baseline by a large margin to achieve a new state-of-the-art result.

  
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