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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

Exploring Bottom-up and Top-down Cues with Attentive Learning for Webly Supervised Object Detection

Mar 22, 2020
Zhonghua Wu, Qingyi Tao, Guosheng Lin, Jianfei Cai

Fully supervised object detection has achieved great success in recent years. However, abundant bounding boxes annotations are needed for training a detector for novel classes. To reduce the human labeling effort, we propose a novel webly supervised object detection (WebSOD) method for novel classes which only requires the web images without further annotations. Our proposed method combines bottom-up and top-down cues for novel class detection. Within our approach, we introduce a bottom-up mechanism based on the well-trained fully supervised object detector (i.e. Faster RCNN) as an object region estimator for web images by recognizing the common objectiveness shared by base and novel classes. With the estimated regions on the web images, we then utilize the top-down attention cues as the guidance for region classification. Furthermore, we propose a residual feature refinement (RFR) block to tackle the domain mismatch between web domain and the target domain. We demonstrate our proposed method on PASCAL VOC dataset with three different novel/base splits. Without any target-domain novel-class images and annotations, our proposed webly supervised object detection model is able to achieve promising performance for novel classes. Moreover, we also conduct transfer learning experiments on large scale ILSVRC 2013 detection dataset and achieve state-of-the-art performance.

  
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Tube-CNN: Modeling temporal evolution of appearance for object detection in video

Dec 06, 2018
Tuan-Hung Vu, Anton Osokin, Ivan Laptev

Object detection in video is crucial for many applications. Compared to images, video provides additional cues which can help to disambiguate the detection problem. Our goal in this paper is to learn discriminative models for the temporal evolution of object appearance and to use such models for object detection. To model temporal evolution, we introduce space-time tubes corresponding to temporal sequences of bounding boxes. We propose two CNN architectures for generating and classifying tubes, respectively. Our tube proposal network (TPN) first generates a large number of spatio-temporal tube proposals maximizing object recall. The Tube-CNN then implements a tube-level object detector in the video. Our method improves state of the art on two large-scale datasets for object detection in video: HollywoodHeads and ImageNet VID. Tube models show particular advantages in difficult dynamic scenes.

* 13 pages, 8 figures, technical report 
  
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DC-SPP-YOLO: Dense Connection and Spatial Pyramid Pooling Based YOLO for Object Detection

Mar 20, 2019
Zhanchao Huang, Jianlin Wang

Although YOLOv2 approach is extremely fast on object detection; its backbone network has the low ability on feature extraction and fails to make full use of multi-scale local region features, which restricts the improvement of object detection accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposed a DC-SPP-YOLO (Dense Connection and Spatial Pyramid Pooling Based YOLO) approach for ameliorating the object detection accuracy of YOLOv2. Specifically, the dense connection of convolution layers is employed in the backbone network of YOLOv2 to strengthen the feature extraction and alleviate the vanishing-gradient problem. Moreover, an improved spatial pyramid pooling is introduced to pool and concatenate the multi-scale local region features, so that the network can learn the object features more comprehensively. The DC-SPP-YOLO model is established and trained based on a new loss function composed of mean square error and cross entropy, and the object detection is realized. Experiments demonstrate that the mAP (mean Average Precision) of DC-SPP-YOLO proposed on PASCAL VOC datasets and UA-DETRAC datasets is higher than that of YOLOv2; the object detection accuracy of DC-SPP-YOLO is superior to YOLOv2 by strengthening feature extraction and using the multi-scale local region features.

* 23 pages, 9 figures, 9 tables 
  
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Sparse LiDAR and Stereo Fusion (SLS-Fusion) for Depth Estimationand 3D Object Detection

Mar 05, 2021
Nguyen Anh Minh Mai, Pierre Duthon, Louahdi Khoudour, Alain Crouzil, Sergio A. Velastin

The ability to accurately detect and localize objects is recognized as being the most important for the perception of self-driving cars. From 2D to 3D object detection, the most difficult is to determine the distance from the ego-vehicle to objects. Expensive technology like LiDAR can provide a precise and accurate depth information, so most studies have tended to focus on this sensor showing a performance gap between LiDAR-based methods and camera-based methods. Although many authors have investigated how to fuse LiDAR with RGB cameras, as far as we know there are no studies to fuse LiDAR and stereo in a deep neural network for the 3D object detection task. This paper presents SLS-Fusion, a new approach to fuse data from 4-beam LiDAR and a stereo camera via a neural network for depth estimation to achieve better dense depth maps and thereby improves 3D object detection performance. Since 4-beam LiDAR is cheaper than the well-known 64-beam LiDAR, this approach is also classified as a low-cost sensors-based method. Through evaluation on the KITTI benchmark, it is shown that the proposed method significantly improves depth estimation performance compared to a baseline method. Also, when applying it to 3D object detection, a new state of the art on low-cost sensor based method is achieved.

* 7 pages, 2 figures 
  
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Exploring 2D Data Augmentation for 3D Monocular Object Detection

Apr 21, 2021
Sugirtha T, Sridevi M, Khailash Santhakumar, B Ravi Kiran, Thomas Gauthier, Senthil Yogamani

Data augmentation is a key component of CNN based image recognition tasks like object detection. However, it is relatively less explored for 3D object detection. Many standard 2D object detection data augmentation techniques do not extend to 3D box. Extension of these data augmentations for 3D object detection requires adaptation of the 3D geometry of the input scene and synthesis of new viewpoints. This requires accurate depth information of the scene which may not be always available. In this paper, we evaluate existing 2D data augmentations and propose two novel augmentations for monocular 3D detection without a requirement for novel view synthesis. We evaluate these augmentations on the RTM3D detection model firstly due to the shorter training times . We obtain a consistent improvement by 4% in the 3D AP (@IoU=0.7) for cars, ~1.8% scores 3D AP (@IoU=0.25) for pedestrians & cyclists, over the baseline on KITTI car detection dataset. We also demonstrate a rigorous evaluation of the mAP scores by re-weighting them to take into account the class imbalance in the KITTI validation dataset.

  
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QueryDet: Cascaded Sparse Query for Accelerating High-Resolution Small Object Detection

Mar 16, 2021
Chenhongyi Yang, Zehao Huang, Naiyan Wang

While general object detection with deep learning has achieved great success in the past few years, the performance and efficiency of detecting small objects are far from satisfactory. The most common and effective way to promote small object detection is to use high-resolution images or feature maps. However, both approaches induce costly computation since the computational cost grows squarely as the size of images and features increases. To get the best of two worlds, we propose QueryDet that uses a novel query mechanism to accelerate the inference speed of feature-pyramid based object detectors. The pipeline composes two steps: it first predicts the coarse locations of small objects on low-resolution features and then computes the accurate detection results using high-resolution features sparsely guided by those coarse positions. In this way, we can not only harvest the benefit of high-resolution feature maps but also avoid useless computation for the background area. On the popular COCO dataset, the proposed method improves the detection mAP by 1.0 and mAP-small by 2.0, and the high-resolution inference speed is improved to 3.0x on average. On VisDrone dataset, which contains more small objects, we create a new state-of-the-art while gaining a 2.3x high-resolution acceleration on average. Code is available at: https://github.com/ChenhongyiYang/QueryDet-PyTorch

  
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Object Relation Detection Based on One-shot Learning

Jul 16, 2018
Li Zhou, Jian Zhao, Jianshu Li, Li Yuan, Jiashi Feng

Detecting the relations among objects, such as "cat on sofa" and "person ride horse", is a crucial task in image understanding, and beneficial to bridging the semantic gap between images and natural language. Despite the remarkable progress of deep learning in detection and recognition of individual objects, it is still a challenging task to localize and recognize the relations between objects due to the complex combinatorial nature of various kinds of object relations. Inspired by the recent advances in one-shot learning, we propose a simple yet effective Semantics Induced Learner (SIL) model for solving this challenging task. Learning in one-shot manner can enable a detection model to adapt to a huge number of object relations with diverse appearance effectively and robustly. In addition, the SIL combines bottom-up and top-down attention mech- anisms, therefore enabling attention at the level of vision and semantics favorably. Within our proposed model, the bottom-up mechanism, which is based on Faster R-CNN, proposes objects regions, and the top-down mechanism selects and integrates visual features according to semantic information. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework over other state-of-the-art methods on two large-scale data sets for object relation detection.

  
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Confidence Guided Stereo 3D Object Detection with Split Depth Estimation

Mar 11, 2020
Chengyao Li, Jason Ku, Steven L. Waslander

Accurate and reliable 3D object detection is vital to safe autonomous driving. Despite recent developments, the performance gap between stereo-based methods and LiDAR-based methods is still considerable. Accurate depth estimation is crucial to the performance of stereo-based 3D object detection methods, particularly for those pixels associated with objects in the foreground. Moreover, stereo-based methods suffer from high variance in the depth estimation accuracy, which is often not considered in the object detection pipeline. To tackle these two issues, we propose CG-Stereo, a confidence-guided stereo 3D object detection pipeline that uses separate decoders for foreground and background pixels during depth estimation, and leverages the confidence estimation from the depth estimation network as a soft attention mechanism in the 3D object detector. Our approach outperforms all state-of-the-art stereo-based 3D detectors on the KITTI benchmark.

* 8 pages, 6 figures 
  
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Anchor Pruning for Object Detection

Apr 01, 2021
Maxim Bonnaerens, Matthias Freiberger, Joni Dambre

This paper proposes anchor pruning for object detection in one-stage anchor-based detectors. While pruning techniques are widely used to reduce the computational cost of convolutional neural networks, they tend to focus on optimizing the backbone networks where often most computations are. In this work we demonstrate an additional pruning technique, specifically for object detection: anchor pruning. With more efficient backbone networks and a growing trend of deploying object detectors on embedded systems where post-processing steps such as non-maximum suppression can be a bottleneck, the impact of the anchors used in the detection head is becoming increasingly more important. In this work, we show that many anchors in the object detection head can be removed without any loss in accuracy. With additional retraining, anchor pruning can even lead to improved accuracy. Extensive experiments on SSD and MS COCO show that the detection head can be made up to 44% more efficient while simultaneously increasing accuracy. Further experiments on RetinaNet and PASCAL VOC show the general effectiveness of our approach. We also introduce `overanchorized' models that can be used together with anchor pruning to eliminate hyperparameters related to the initial shape of anchors.

  
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DuBox: No-Prior Box Objection Detection via Residual Dual Scale Detectors

Apr 16, 2019
Shuai Chen, Jinpeng Li, Chuanqi Yao, Wenbo Hou, Shuo Qin, Wenyao Jin, Xu Tang

Traditional neural objection detection methods use multi-scale features that allow multiple detectors to perform detecting tasks independently and in parallel. At the same time, with the handling of the prior box, the algorithm's ability to deal with scale invariance is enhanced. However, too many prior boxes and independent detectors will increase the computational redundancy of the detection algorithm. In this study, we introduce Dubox, a new one-stage approach that detects the objects without prior box. Working with multi-scale features, the designed dual scale residual unit makes dual scale detectors no longer run independently. The second scale detector learns the residual of the first. Dubox has enhanced the capacity of heuristic-guided that can further enable the first scale detector to maximize the detection of small targets and the second to detect objects that cannot be identified by the first one. Besides, for each scale detector, with the new classification-regression progressive strapped loss makes our process not based on prior boxes. Integrating these strategies, our detection algorithm has achieved excellent performance in terms of speed and accuracy. Extensive experiments on the VOC, COCO object detection benchmark have confirmed the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  
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