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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

Kinematic 3D Object Detection in Monocular Video

Jul 19, 2020
Garrick Brazil, Gerard Pons-Moll, Xiaoming Liu, Bernt Schiele

Perceiving the physical world in 3D is fundamental for self-driving applications. Although temporal motion is an invaluable resource to human vision for detection, tracking, and depth perception, such features have not been thoroughly utilized in modern 3D object detectors. In this work, we propose a novel method for monocular video-based 3D object detection which carefully leverages kinematic motion to improve precision of 3D localization. Specifically, we first propose a novel decomposition of object orientation as well as a self-balancing 3D confidence. We show that both components are critical to enable our kinematic model to work effectively. Collectively, using only a single model, we efficiently leverage 3D kinematics from monocular videos to improve the overall localization precision in 3D object detection while also producing useful by-products of scene dynamics (ego-motion and per-object velocity). We achieve state-of-the-art performance on monocular 3D object detection and the Bird's Eye View tasks within the KITTI self-driving dataset.

* To appear in ECCV 2020 
  
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Circle Representation for Medical Object Detection

Oct 22, 2021
Ethan H. Nguyen, Haichun Yang, Ruining Deng, Yuzhe Lu, Zheyu Zhu, Joseph T. Roland, Le Lu, Bennett A. Landman, Agnes B. Fogo, Yuankai Huo

Box representation has been extensively used for object detection in computer vision. Such representation is efficacious but not necessarily optimized for biomedical objects (e.g., glomeruli), which play an essential role in renal pathology. In this paper, we propose a simple circle representation for medical object detection and introduce CircleNet, an anchor-free detection framework. Compared with the conventional bounding box representation, the proposed bounding circle representation innovates in three-fold: (1) it is optimized for ball-shaped biomedical objects; (2) The circle representation reduced the degree of freedom compared with box representation; (3) It is naturally more rotation invariant. When detecting glomeruli and nuclei on pathological images, the proposed circle representation achieved superior detection performance and be more rotation-invariant, compared with the bounding box. The code has been made publicly available: https://github.com/hrlblab/CircleNet

* 10 pages, 8 figures, to be published in IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 
  
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QAHOI: Query-Based Anchors for Human-Object Interaction Detection

Dec 16, 2021
Junwen Chen, Keiji Yanai

Human-object interaction (HOI) detection as a downstream of object detection tasks requires localizing pairs of humans and objects and extracting the semantic relationships between humans and objects from an image. Recently, one-stage approaches have become a new trend for this task due to their high efficiency. However, these approaches focus on detecting possible interaction points or filtering human-object pairs, ignoring the variability in the location and size of different objects at spatial scales. To address this problem, we propose a transformer-based method, QAHOI (Query-Based Anchors for Human-Object Interaction detection), which leverages a multi-scale architecture to extract features from different spatial scales and uses query-based anchors to predict all the elements of an HOI instance. We further investigate that a powerful backbone significantly increases accuracy for QAHOI, and QAHOI with a transformer-based backbone outperforms recent state-of-the-art methods by large margins on the HICO-DET benchmark. The source code is available at $\href{https://github.com/cjw2021/QAHOI}{\text{this https URL}}$.

  
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TransVOD: End-to-end Video Object Detection with Spatial-Temporal Transformers

Jan 17, 2022
Qianyu Zhou, Xiangtai Li, Lu He, Yibo Yang, Guangliang Cheng, Yunhai Tong, Lizhuang Ma, Dacheng Tao

Detection Transformer (DETR) and Deformable DETR have been proposed to eliminate the need for many hand-designed components in object detection while demonstrating good performance as previous complex hand-crafted detectors. However, their performance on Video Object Detection (VOD) has not been well explored. In this paper, we present TransVOD, the first end-to-end video object detection system based on spatial-temporal Transformer architectures. The first goal of this paper is to streamline the pipeline of VOD, effectively removing the need for many hand-crafted components for feature aggregation, e.g., optical flow model, relation networks. Besides, benefited from the object query design in DETR, our method does not need complicated post-processing methods such as Seq-NMS. In particular, we present a temporal Transformer to aggregate both the spatial object queries and the feature memories of each frame. Our temporal transformer consists of two components: Temporal Query Encoder (TQE) to fuse object queries, and Temporal Deformable Transformer Decoder (TDTD) to obtain current frame detection results. These designs boost the strong baseline deformable DETR by a significant margin (3%-4% mAP) on the ImageNet VID dataset. Then, we present two improved versions of TransVOD including TransVOD++ and TransVOD Lite. The former fuses object-level information into object query via dynamic convolution while the latter models the entire video clips as the output to speed up the inference time. We give detailed analysis of all three models in the experiment part. In particular, our proposed TransVOD++ sets a new state-of-the-art record in terms of accuracy on ImageNet VID with 90.0% mAP. Our proposed TransVOD Lite also achieves the best speed and accuracy trade-off with 83.7% mAP while running at around 30 FPS on a single V100 GPU device. Code and models will be available for further research.

* Extended version of arXiv:2105.10920 
  
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SM-NAS: Structural-to-Modular Neural Architecture Search for Object Detection

Nov 30, 2019
Lewei Yao, Hang Xu, Wei Zhang, Xiaodan Liang, Zhenguo Li

The state-of-the-art object detection method is complicated with various modules such as backbone, feature fusion neck, RPN and RCNN head, where each module may have different designs and structures. How to leverage the computational cost and accuracy trade-off for the structural combination as well as the modular selection of multiple modules? Neural architecture search (NAS) has shown great potential in finding an optimal solution. Existing NAS works for object detection only focus on searching better design of a single module such as backbone or feature fusion neck, while neglecting the balance of the whole system. In this paper, we present a two-stage coarse-to-fine searching strategy named Structural-to-Modular NAS (SM-NAS) for searching a GPU-friendly design of both an efficient combination of modules and better modular-level architecture for object detection. Specifically, Structural-level searching stage first aims to find an efficient combination of different modules; Modular-level searching stage then evolves each specific module and pushes the Pareto front forward to a faster task-specific network. We consider a multi-objective search where the search space covers many popular designs of detection methods. We directly search a detection backbone without pre-trained models or any proxy task by exploring a fast training from scratch strategy. The resulting architectures dominate state-of-the-art object detection systems in both inference time and accuracy and demonstrate the effectiveness on multiple detection datasets, e.g. halving the inference time with additional 1% mAP improvement compared to FPN and reaching 46% mAP with the similar inference time of MaskRCNN.

* Accepted by AAAI 2020 
  
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VPFNet: Voxel-Pixel Fusion Network for Multi-class 3D Object Detection

Nov 01, 2021
Chia-Hung Wang, Hsueh-Wei Chen, Li-Chen Fu

Many LiDAR-based methods for detecting large objects, single-class object detection, or under easy situations were claimed to perform quite well. However, their performances of detecting small objects or under hard situations did not surpass those of the fusion-based ones due to failure to leverage the image semantics. In order to elevate the detection performance in a complicated environment, this paper proposes a deep learning (DL)-embedded fusion-based multi-class 3D object detection network which admits both LiDAR and camera sensor data streams, named Voxel-Pixel Fusion Network (VPFNet). Inside this network, a key novel component is called Voxel-Pixel Fusion (VPF) layer, which takes advantage of the geometric relation of a voxel-pixel pair and fuses the voxel features and the pixel features with proper mechanisms. Moreover, several parameters are particularly designed to guide and enhance the fusion effect after considering the characteristics of a voxel-pixel pair. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated on the KITTI benchmark for multi-class 3D object detection task under multilevel difficulty, and is shown to outperform all state-of-the-art methods in mean average precision (mAP). It is also noteworthy that our approach here ranks the first on the KITTI leaderboard for the challenging pedestrian class.

  
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LCDet: Low-Complexity Fully-Convolutional Neural Networks for Object Detection in Embedded Systems

May 16, 2017
Subarna Tripathi, Gokce Dane, Byeongkeun Kang, Vasudev Bhaskaran, Truong Nguyen

Deep convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are the state-of-the-art performers for object detection task. It is well known that object detection requires more computation and memory than image classification. Thus the consolidation of a CNN-based object detection for an embedded system is more challenging. In this work, we propose LCDet, a fully-convolutional neural network for generic object detection that aims to work in embedded systems. We design and develop an end-to-end TensorFlow(TF)-based model. Additionally, we employ 8-bit quantization on the learned weights. We use face detection as a use case. Our TF-Slim based network can predict different faces of different shapes and sizes in a single forward pass. Our experimental results show that the proposed method achieves comparative accuracy comparing with state-of-the-art CNN-based face detection methods, while reducing the model size by 3x and memory-BW by ~4x comparing with one of the best real-time CNN-based object detector such as YOLO. TF 8-bit quantized model provides additional 4x memory reduction while keeping the accuracy as good as the floating point model. The proposed model thus becomes amenable for embedded implementations.

* Embedded Vision Workshop in CVPR 
  
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Finding a Needle in a Haystack: Tiny Flying Object Detection in 4K Videos using a Joint Detection-and-Tracking Approach

May 18, 2021
Ryota Yoshihashi, Rei Kawakami, Shaodi You, Tu Tuan Trinh, Makoto Iida, Takeshi Naemura

Detecting tiny objects in a high-resolution video is challenging because the visual information is little and unreliable. Specifically, the challenge includes very low resolution of the objects, MPEG artifacts due to compression and a large searching area with many hard negatives. Tracking is equally difficult because of the unreliable appearance, and the unreliable motion estimation. Luckily, we found that by combining this two challenging tasks together, there will be mutual benefits. Following the idea, in this paper, we present a neural network model called the Recurrent Correlational Network, where detection and tracking are jointly performed over a multi-frame representation learned through a single, trainable, and end-to-end network. The framework exploits a convolutional long short-term memory network for learning informative appearance changes for detection, while the learned representation is shared in tracking for enhancing its performance. In experiments with datasets containing images of scenes with small flying objects, such as birds and unmanned aerial vehicles, the proposed method yielded consistent improvements in detection performance over deep single-frame detectors and existing motion-based detectors. Furthermore, our network performs as well as state-of-the-art generic object trackers when it was evaluated as a tracker on a bird image dataset.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1709.04666 
  
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