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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

Towards Instance Segmentation with Object Priority: Prominent Object Detection and Recognition

Aug 04, 2017
Hamed R. Tavakoli, Jorma Laaksonen

This manuscript introduces the problem of prominent object detection and recognition inspired by the fact that human seems to priorities perception of scene elements. The problem deals with finding the most important region of interest, segmenting the relevant item/object in that area, and assigning it an object class label. In other words, we are solving the three problems of saliency modeling, saliency detection, and object recognition under one umbrella. The motivation behind such a problem formulation is (1) the benefits to the knowledge representation-based vision pipelines, and (2) the potential improvements in emulating bio-inspired vision systems by solving these three problems together. We are foreseeing extending this problem formulation to fully semantically segmented scenes with instance object priority for high-level inferences in various applications including assistive vision. Along with a new problem definition, we also propose a method to achieve such a task. The proposed model predicts the most important area in the image, segments the associated objects, and labels them. The proposed problem and method are evaluated against human fixations, annotated segmentation masks, and object class categories. We define a chance level for each of the evaluation criterion to compare the proposed algorithm with. Despite the good performance of the proposed baseline, the overall evaluations indicate that the problem of prominent object detection and recognition is a challenging task that is still worth investigating further.

  
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Dynamic and Static Object Detection Considering Fusion Regions and Point-wise Features

Jul 27, 2021
Andrés Gómez, Thomas Genevois, Jerome Lussereau, Christian Laugier

Object detection is a critical problem for the safe interaction between autonomous vehicles and road users. Deep-learning methodologies allowed the development of object detection approaches with better performance. However, there is still the challenge to obtain more characteristics from the objects detected in real-time. The main reason is that more information from the environment's objects can improve the autonomous vehicle capacity to face different urban situations. This paper proposes a new approach to detect static and dynamic objects in front of an autonomous vehicle. Our approach can also get other characteristics from the objects detected, like their position, velocity, and heading. We develop our proposal fusing results of the environment's interpretations achieved of YoloV3 and a Bayesian filter. To demonstrate our proposal's performance, we asses it through a benchmark dataset and real-world data obtained from an autonomous platform. We compared the results achieved with another approach.

* 6 pages, 7 figures 
  
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Soft-NMS -- Improving Object Detection With One Line of Code

Aug 08, 2017
Navaneeth Bodla, Bharat Singh, Rama Chellappa, Larry S. Davis

Non-maximum suppression is an integral part of the object detection pipeline. First, it sorts all detection boxes on the basis of their scores. The detection box M with the maximum score is selected and all other detection boxes with a significant overlap (using a pre-defined threshold) with M are suppressed. This process is recursively applied on the remaining boxes. As per the design of the algorithm, if an object lies within the predefined overlap threshold, it leads to a miss. To this end, we propose Soft-NMS, an algorithm which decays the detection scores of all other objects as a continuous function of their overlap with M. Hence, no object is eliminated in this process. Soft-NMS obtains consistent improvements for the coco-style mAP metric on standard datasets like PASCAL VOC 2007 (1.7% for both R-FCN and Faster-RCNN) and MS-COCO (1.3% for R-FCN and 1.1% for Faster-RCNN) by just changing the NMS algorithm without any additional hyper-parameters. Using Deformable-RFCN, Soft-NMS improves state-of-the-art in object detection from 39.8% to 40.9% with a single model. Further, the computational complexity of Soft-NMS is the same as traditional NMS and hence it can be efficiently implemented. Since Soft-NMS does not require any extra training and is simple to implement, it can be easily integrated into any object detection pipeline. Code for Soft-NMS is publicly available on GitHub (http://bit.ly/2nJLNMu).

* ICCV 2017 camera ready version 
  
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A Normalized Gaussian Wasserstein Distance for Tiny Object Detection

Oct 26, 2021
Jinwang Wang, Chang Xu, Wen Yang, Lei Yu

Detecting tiny objects is a very challenging problem since a tiny object only contains a few pixels in size. We demonstrate that state-of-the-art detectors do not produce satisfactory results on tiny objects due to the lack of appearance information. Our key observation is that Intersection over Union (IoU) based metrics such as IoU itself and its extensions are very sensitive to the location deviation of the tiny objects, and drastically deteriorate the detection performance when used in anchor-based detectors. To alleviate this, we propose a new evaluation metric using Wasserstein distance for tiny object detection. Specifically, we first model the bounding boxes as 2D Gaussian distributions and then propose a new metric dubbed Normalized Wasserstein Distance (NWD) to compute the similarity between them by their corresponding Gaussian distributions. The proposed NWD metric can be easily embedded into the assignment, non-maximum suppression, and loss function of any anchor-based detector to replace the commonly used IoU metric. We evaluate our metric on a new dataset for tiny object detection (AI-TOD) in which the average object size is much smaller than existing object detection datasets. Extensive experiments show that, when equipped with NWD metric, our approach yields performance that is 6.7 AP points higher than a standard fine-tuning baseline, and 6.0 AP points higher than state-of-the-art competitors.

  
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Object-Aware Centroid Voting for Monocular 3D Object Detection

Jul 20, 2020
Wentao Bao, Qi Yu, Yu Kong

Monocular 3D object detection aims to detect objects in a 3D physical world from a single camera. However, recent approaches either rely on expensive LiDAR devices, or resort to dense pixel-wise depth estimation that causes prohibitive computational cost. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end trainable monocular 3D object detector without learning the dense depth. Specifically, the grid coordinates of a 2D box are first projected back to 3D space with the pinhole model as 3D centroids proposals. Then, a novel object-aware voting approach is introduced, which considers both the region-wise appearance attention and the geometric projection distribution, to vote the 3D centroid proposals for 3D object localization. With the late fusion and the predicted 3D orientation and dimension, the 3D bounding boxes of objects can be detected from a single RGB image. The method is straightforward yet significantly superior to other monocular-based methods. Extensive experimental results on the challenging KITTI benchmark validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

* IROS 2020 Accepted Paper 
  
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Real-Time Object Detection and Recognition on Low-Compute Humanoid Robots using Deep Learning

Jan 20, 2020
Sayantan Chatterjee, Faheem H. Zunjani, Souvik Sen, Gora C. Nandi

We envision that in the near future, humanoid robots would share home space and assist us in our daily and routine activities through object manipulations. One of the fundamental technologies that need to be developed for robots is to enable them to detect objects and recognize them for effective manipulations and take real-time decisions involving those objects. In this paper, we describe a novel architecture that enables multiple low-compute NAO robots to perform real-time detection, recognition and localization of objects in its camera view and take programmable actions based on the detected objects. The proposed algorithm for object detection and localization is an empirical modification of YOLOv3, based on indoor experiments in multiple scenarios, with a smaller weight size and lesser computational requirements. Quantization of the weights and re-adjusting filter sizes and layer arrangements for convolutions improved the inference time for low-resolution images from the robot s camera feed. YOLOv3 was chosen after a comparative study of bounding box algorithms was performed with an objective to choose one that strikes the perfect balance among information retention, low inference time and high accuracy for real-time object detection and localization. The architecture also comprises of an effective end-to-end pipeline to feed the real-time frames from the camera feed to the neural net and use its results for guiding the robot with customizable actions corresponding to the detected class labels.

* 7 pages 
  
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Object Detection and Pose Estimation from RGB and Depth Data for Real-time, Adaptive Robotic Grasping

Jan 18, 2021
S. K. Paul, M. T. Chowdhury, M. Nicolescu, M. Nicolescu

In recent times, object detection and pose estimation have gained significant attention in the context of robotic vision applications. Both the identification of objects of interest as well as the estimation of their pose remain important capabilities in order for robots to provide effective assistance for numerous robotic applications ranging from household tasks to industrial manipulation. This problem is particularly challenging because of the heterogeneity of objects having different and potentially complex shapes, and the difficulties arising due to background clutter and partial occlusions between objects. As the main contribution of this work, we propose a system that performs real-time object detection and pose estimation, for the purpose of dynamic robot grasping. The robot has been pre-trained to perform a small set of canonical grasps from a few fixed poses for each object. When presented with an unknown object in an arbitrary pose, the proposed approach allows the robot to detect the object identity and its actual pose, and then adapt a canonical grasp in order to be used with the new pose. For training, the system defines a canonical grasp by capturing the relative pose of an object with respect to the gripper attached to the robot's wrist. During testing, once a new pose is detected, a canonical grasp for the object is identified and then dynamically adapted by adjusting the robot arm's joint angles, so that the gripper can grasp the object in its new pose. We conducted experiments using a humanoid PR2 robot and showed that the proposed framework can detect well-textured objects, and provide accurate pose estimation in the presence of tolerable amounts of out-of-plane rotation. The performance is also illustrated by the robot successfully grasping objects from a wide range of arbitrary poses.

  
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Weakly Supervised Learning for Salient Object Detection

Sep 08, 2015
Huaizu Jiang

Recent advances in supervised salient object detection has resulted in significant performance on benchmark datasets. Training such models, however, requires expensive pixel-wise annotations of salient objects. Moreover, many existing salient object detection models assume that at least one salient object exists in the input image. Such an assumption often leads to less appealing saliency maps on the background images, which contain no salient object at all. To avoid the requirement of expensive pixel-wise salient region annotations, in this paper, we study weakly supervised learning approaches for salient object detection. Given a set of background images and salient object images, we propose a solution toward jointly addressing the salient object existence and detection tasks. We adopt the latent SVM framework and formulate the two problems together in a single integrated objective function: saliency labels of superpixels are modeled as hidden variables and involved in a classification term conditioned to the salient object existence variable, which in turn depends on both global image and regional saliency features and saliency label assignment. Experimental results on benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

* technical report 
  
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A Delay Metric for Video Object Detection: What Average Precision Fails to Tell

Aug 18, 2019
Huizi Mao, Xiaodong Yang, William J. Dally

Average precision (AP) is a widely used metric to evaluate detection accuracy of image and video object detectors. In this paper, we analyze object detection from videos and point out that AP alone is not sufficient to capture the temporal nature of video object detection. To tackle this problem, we propose a comprehensive metric, average delay (AD), to measure and compare detection delay. To facilitate delay evaluation, we carefully select a subset of ImageNet VID, which we name as ImageNet VIDT with an emphasis on complex trajectories. By extensively evaluating a wide range of detectors on VIDT, we show that most methods drastically increase the detection delay but still preserve AP well. In other words, AP is not sensitive enough to reflect the temporal characteristics of a video object detector. Our results suggest that video object detection methods should be additionally evaluated with a delay metric, particularly for latency-critical applications such as autonomous vehicle perception.

* ICCV 2019 
  
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Efficient Object Detection for High Resolution Images

Oct 05, 2015
Yongxi Lu, Tara Javidi

Efficient generation of high-quality object proposals is an essential step in state-of-the-art object detection systems based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) features. Current object proposal algorithms are computationally inefficient in processing high resolution images containing small objects, which makes them the bottleneck in object detection systems. In this paper we present effective methods to detect objects for high resolution images. We combine two complementary strategies. The first approach is to predict bounding boxes based on adjacent visual features. The second approach uses high level image features to guide a two-step search process that adaptively focuses on regions that are likely to contain small objects. We extract features required for the two strategies by utilizing a pre-trained DCNN model known as AlexNet. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm by showing its performance on a high-resolution image subset of the SUN 2012 object detection dataset.

  
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